The Demographic Transition Model (DTM)

The basic stages of the DTM

Refers to AQA AS Geography (Chapter 5 - Population change)

  • Created by: Bethany
  • Created on: 02-04-13 16:38
View mindmap
  • The Demographic Transition Model (DTM)
    • Describes how the population of a country changes over time.
      • Gives changes in birth and death rates
      • Shows that countries pass through five stages of population changes
    • Stage 1 (High Fluctuating Stage)
      • Period of high birth rates and death rates, both of which fluctuate.
      • Population growth is small.
      • High birth rate due to limited birth control/family planning and high infant mortality rate, which encourages the birth of more children.
      • High death rate due to high incidence of disease, poor nutrition, famine, poor levels of hygiene and underdeveloped/ inadequate health facilities.
    • Stage 2 (Early Expanding Stage)
      • Period of high birth rate but falling death rate, where the population begins to expand rapidly.
      • Death rate falls because of improved public health, better nutrition, lower child mortality and improved medical provision
    • Stage 3 (Late Expanding Stage)
      • A period of falling birth rate and a continuing fall in death rate.
      • Birth rate falls due to greater access to education for women, preferences for smaller families, a lower infant mortality rates, increased personal wealth, compulsory schooling (more expensive to have children) and the availability of family planning.
    • Stage 4 (Low Fluctuating Stage)
      • Period of low birth and death rates, both of which fluctuate. Population growth is small and fertility continues to fall.
      • Significant changes in personal lifestyles. There are more women in the workforce, many people have large personal incomes and leisure interests.
    • Stage 5 (decline)
      • Death rate slightly exceeds birth rate causing population decline. Has only been seen in recent years in some Western European countries.
      • Reasons for low birth rate include greater financial independence of women, concern about the impact of increased population and its strain on resources, an increased death rate due to an aging population, a rise in the concept of childlessness, and an increase in same-sex relationships.




This helped so much. Thank you! :D

Mr A Gibson


This mind map of the DTM is good - it'd be great if you could print it out and also include an image of the DTM too - this will help you learn the key features of each stage.

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Population change and migration resources »