The collapse of Outremer

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  • Created by: Isabelle
  • Created on: 30-03-14 15:35
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  • The Decline of Outremer
    • Why do the Crusader states collapse in 1187?
      • Poor leadership e.g Raymond of Antioch, Reynald of Antioch attacks Cyprus (Byzantine land)
      • Lack of Western help, Europe at War with itself - German Emperor vs Pope + England vs France
      • Rise in Muslim unity, Nur-al Din, then Saladin, Jihadi ideas
      • Over ambition e.g BIII stretches resources by taking Ascalon, now focused on Egypt
      • Frankish disunity, Thierry of Flanders arrives but they don't like westerners
        • Dove faction
          • Peaceful motives
            • Led by Raymond III of Tripoli
        • Hawk faction
          • More violent methods
            • Led by Agnes of Courtenay
          • Eventually have control over Baldwin + Guy L
      • Actions of the Nobility e.g Reynald doesn't honor truce, captured + held ransom
      • Geographical weaknesses, surrounded by hostility, Anatolia, Seljuks, Saladin. They have ports but no help
    • Why the Franks lost at the Battle of Hattin in 1187?
      • Actions of Guy, wanted to repeat Baisan, stay close + protect themselves. But under-supplied attack, wants to defend on extinct volcano
      • Strength of Saladin, large army, unified, provokes crusaders (attacks Tiberius) +traps them
      • Internal rivalries e.g Raymond ends alliance w/Saladin +goes back to Guy. Gerard de Ridefort dislikes Raymond
        • Reynald de Chatillon = uncontrollable liability, declares own land independent, aggravates Saladin by raiding Muslims etc
      • Geographically weak position, desert betw/cities
    • Events after Hattin 1187
      • 1187 Saladin takes Jerusalem, captured + ransomed inhabitants
        • 1187-8 Saladin besieges Montreal
          • 1188 Saladin besieges Saone
            • 1189 Saladin besieges Belvoir
      • 1191 Battle of Arsuf westerners have devastating effect, Acre also attacked

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