The course of collectivisation in the USSR

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  • The course of collectivisation
    • "emergency measures"
      • rationing in the cities because of Kulak grain strike in 1928
      • late 1928 grain requisitioning restarts
      • under soviet criminal code 107 grain hoarding becomes a crime
        • became an  incentive for poorer farmers to inform officials as they  recived the exiled hoarders land
        • policy becomes unpopular with peasants and party drop the policy
          • Bukharin convinced the party to drop it
      • policy restated in 1929 due to stalins growing power
        • Meat is requisitioned  in the same year
        • police given power to send kulaks to prison camps
    • The liquidation of the Kulaks
      • mass collectivisation begins in December 1929
        • Stalin gives orders to liquidize the Kulaks as a class
          • 1)"dekulakisation"  marked the end of capitalist and independent farming
          • 2) vastly increased the rate at which collectivisation occurred
        • stalin had originally only said 30% would be collective
          • however removal of Kulaks would have to be followed by collectivisation
        • the poorest peasants where to lead the way. collective farms would own all local land
          • peasants would pool resources and become more efficient
          • the poorest of peasants however, weren't a majority  of the population
            • many destroyed property to avoid handing it over to the state (they where losing independence)
              • 18 million horses and 100 million sheep dstroyed between 1929-1933
    • The twenty five-thousanders
      • local communists where reluctant to enforce collectivisation.
        • Stalin sent 25,000 "socially conscious industrial workers into the countryside
          • they where eager to impliment communism in the countryside
            • after two weeks of training they where sent out to teach the farmers how to use the new machinery
            • in reality they where sent out to enforce dekulakisation
              • found grain stores and round up Kulaks to send them to exile
    • "dizzy with success"
      • stalins halted his first wave of collectivisation
        • the human cost of the plan was huge, Kulaks where either shot or died in jail.
          • Stalin was unsympathetic |"moscow does not belive in tears"
        • collectivisation caused chaos in an otherwise stable economy
          • crops and machinary where destroyed due to resistance
        • cause a brief state of hostility toward the government
      • politicals and economic reality hit Stalin
        • process halted in march 1930
          • released an article in Pravda titled "dizzy with success"
            • essentially blaimed local officials for being to infusiastic
              • at the time when the process was stopped only 50% of farms where collectives
        • many communists belived the carnage had gone tooo dar
    • famine
      • collectivisation continued in 1931
        • caused a massive famine
          • first time a famine was caused by government policy rather than natural disaster
            • government set targets that where too high
              • Failure to meet these targets was sabotage and would be punished
            • farms who failed to meet these targets had their grain confiscated my the red army
              • millitary checkpoints set up to stop food entering the Ukraine
                • over 10 million people died
                • the requisition wasnt very efficient. most the food was left rotting in barns next to starving villages
              • food aid rejected as officially there was no famine in socialist russia
            • people hiding any food to feed themselves where shot or exiled
  • rationing in the cities because of Kulak grain strike in 1928
  • late 1928 grain requisitioning restarts
  • became an  incentive for poorer farmers to inform officials as they  recived the exiled hoarders land

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