The cosmological argument

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  • Created by: Em171
  • Created on: 07-04-14 17:34
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  • The Cosmological argument
    • Aquinas' three ways
      • Second way: the uncaused causer
        • -Every effect has a cause
        • -Nothing can cause itself
        • -Infinite regress is impossible
          • without a 1st cause, wouldn't be a second cause
        • -So, must be a first cause which causes everything else but is uncaused itself
          • if something is caused by something else its not the first cause, and something cannot of caused itself as this would mean it pre-existed
        • Must be an uncaused causer
          • GOD
      • Third way: possibility and necessity
        • The universe is full of contingent things
          • Start /end /have to exist /dependent on something else to exist
        • If there was nothing in the past, there would be nothing now
        • There is somthing now
          • The universe
        • So there must of always been something as there is a universe now
        • If everything is contingent, then at one time there would of been nothing
        • But then nothing could exist now
        • Must be one necessary being thats always existed and causes all contingent things
          • GOD
      • First way: the unmoved mover
        • -Everything in motion is moved by something else(know by observation)
          • changed from potential to actual by something actual
            • Example: burning wood
              • wood -potential to burn
                • can't change itself
                  • needs something actual to change it from potential to actual
            • Example: Ice melting/ acorn
        • -Something cannot change itself
        • -Infinite regress is impossible
          • Leibniz              Principle of sufficient reason
            • -world is rational
            • -we have reason
            • -there should be a complete satisfactory rational explanation or response to any question
        • -So, must be an external source of change which itself is unchanged
          • An unmoved mover (first mover)
            • GOD
      • He knows God exists due to......
        • Natural theology
          • Uses humans inbuilt capabilities of observation/reason to learn about God
          • 5 'ways' to God
          • Reason to confirm what you already believe
        • Revealed theology
          • We only know as God told us
            • 'I am that I am' (Exodus)
    • Based on observation/ experience
      • Inductive argument
        • premise true, argument true, conclusion probably true
      • A posteriori argument
        • after experience
    • Coppleston: Cause in esse
      • There are some things that are contingent
      • World consists of all things that have becoem actualised
      • The explanation of the universe must be found in a cause external to it
      • Explanation of universe must be a necessary being
        • external to universe /causes everything /itself causeless
          • GOD
      • In esse- still  sustains
        • Ontological casue
    • The Kalam argument
      • Argues for a temporal first cause
        • Whatever begins to exist has a cause
        • The universe began to exist
        • So, the universe has a cause
    • Strengths
      • Based on empirical evidence
      • Reliable, there is logical reasons for it
      • Its plausable and coherent
      • Supported by revelation
        • Genesis
      • Fits with features of theistic God
    • Useful to Religion?
      • Yes
        • Gives intellectual support for belief in God
        • Only God can provide an explanation that requires no futher explanation
        • Reveals nature of God (unmoved mover/ sustainer/necessary being)
      • No
        • Argument flawed
        • Draws conclusions that go beyond evidence
        • Inductive - not proof
        • Religion is faith not intelectual arguments
        • Proof leads no room for faith

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