Collapse of detente

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  • Created on: 01-03-14 15:07
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  • The Collapse of Détente : Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
    • The Kabul Revolution - April 1978
      • Soviet leader, Brezhnev saw the Communist revolution in Afghanistan as an opportunity to extend his power in the oil-rich Middle East.
      • Dramatic overthrow of the government.
        • New government in the capital, Kabul, wanted to 'build socialism in Afghanistan'.
      • New Communist President, Taraki became an ally of USSR.
      • Muslim leaders across the country were angered by the socialist reforms.
        • Spring 1979, a Civil War had broken out between the Government and Islamic fighters.
          • Taraki was forced to accept Amin (head of Army) as Prime Minister.
            • Became rivals. October 1979, Amin supporters killed Taraki.
              • Amin claimed presidency of Afghanistan.
    • The Soviet Invasion - December 1979
      • Although Amin was a Communist, the USSR didn't trust him.
        • Soviet secret police reported that he was an American spy.
          • Was unpopular with many Muslim groups, which Brezhnev feared were planning to take control of the country.
      • USSR was concerned that Afghanistan would become an Islamic state and influence nearby Soviet republics to do the same.
        • Islamic states are not Communist and there any countries that became Islamic have no reason to make alliances with Russia.
      • Karmal, an Afhani Communist argued that he had enough support to form a new government but needed Soviet help to defeat Amin's military.
      • Brezhnev thought USA would tolerate the invasion, like they had with Czechoslovakia following the 'Prague Spring', to avoid war.
    • Soviet troops killed Amin along with many of his supporters.
      • Karmal was named President.
        • The invasion was a disaster for both Afghanistan and USSR.
          • It lasted 10 years and around 1.5 million people were killed, including 15,000 Soviet soldiers.


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