Coastal Environment 1.1 - 1.4

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  • The Coastal Environment
    • 1.1 - Multi-use Areas
      • The Hampshire coast
        • Oil Refinery (Economic)
          • Largest in UK
          • 3,000 workers
        • Lymington and Cowes Sailing Resorts (Recreational)
          • Hotels and nearby camping
          • Large marinas
        • Keyhaven Nature Reserve (Environmental)
          • mudflats and salt marsh good for birds
          • provide recreational and educational activities
        • Southhampton
          • Big city with a large population
          • Large shopping centre
    • 1.2 - Coastal Areas and Economic Development
      • Growth Poles - Areas used for business development
      • Infrastructure - network of links including transport
      • Tourism, industry and trade links create economic opportunities and attract a lot of people
      • Dubai in the middle east
        • Shopping centre
        • 11km coast with hotels, resorts and marinas
        • Port terminal for international cruise ships
        • Exhibition and conference centres
      • Using Tourism to Improve Living Conditions
        • Bahia - North-east Brazil
          • Poor area with few business opportunities
            • 15 year development programme to improve
              • Tourist development
          • North of Salvador - $400 million invest
            • Hotels and resorts along attractive coastline
          • New international airport to bring in tourists
          • Both the Coast de Sauipe and Praia do Forte resorts are being developed with the environment considered
            • Either and eco - resort or have strict conservation rules
    • 1.3 - Physical Process that Shape the Coastline
      • Constructive and Destructive Waves
        • Constructive
          • Help to build beaches
          • A larger swash than backwash
          • Long, low waves
        • Destructive
          • Erode cliffs rapidly and remove beach material
          • Backwash stronger than swash
            • Swash still strong
          • Short, steep waves that hit with force
      • Coastal system
        • Erosion / Weathering
          • Transportation
            • Deposition
      • Erosion - Three main types - HAA
        • Abrasion (Corrasion)
          • Stones and sand in the waves are thrown at the cliff as the wave breaks
        • Attrition
          • Sand and stones collide with each other wearing away the beach material
        • Hydraulic Action
          • The sheer force of the wave breaks parts of the cliff off
          • As the wave hits the cliff, air is compressed into cracks - blasts off
      • Weathering - Two main types
        • Corrosion (solution)
          • Sea water is corrosive and can dissolve some types of rock and can increase crack sizes
          • Salt spray gets in cracks - water evaporates and salt crystals form, pushing rock apart
        • Wetting/drying
          • Softer rocks (ie. clay) expand when wet, contract when drying
            • Constant expanding + contracting weakens the rock
    • 1.4 - Landforms Caused by Coastal Ersion
      • Key words
        • Landform - a physical feature that has been formed by erosion/weathering
        • Slipping Plane - line of weakness, often where a previous landslide has occured
      • Type of rock effects rate of erosion
        • Chalk and limestone are well structured so resistant to wave energy
        • If a coastline is made of soft rock (ie. clay or gravel) it becomes very unstable when wet
          • Rainfall soaking through the rock and wave energy at the bottom of cliff can cause Slumping or Landslides
            • Holbeck Hotel - Scarbrough
              • Heavy rainfall caused a huge landslide - water had seeped down into the slipping plane
                • Water in the rock makes it heavier and more unstable
      • Process of headland erosion
        • Crack in rock is widened into a wave-cut notch by hydraulic action
          • Sea cave at the base of cliff, caused by abrasion and hydraulic action
            • Notch - Cave
            • An arch is formed when the cave breaks through headland
              • Cave - Arch
              • Sea spray weakens the rock resulting in rock falls
                • Arch - Rock fall
                • Wave-cut platform at base
                  • Rock fall - Platform
                  • Roof of the arch collapses creating a stack
                    • Arch - Stack
                    • Stack is eroded leaving a stump
                      • Stack - Stump
                      • Process of headland erosion
                        • Crack in rock is widened into a wave-cut notch by hydraulic action
                          • Sea cave at the base of cliff, caused by abrasion and hydraulic action
                            • Notch - Cave
                            • An arch is formed when the cave breaks through headland
                              • Cave - Arch
                              • Sea spray weakens the rock resulting in rock falls
                                • Arch - Rock fall
                                • Wave-cut platform at base
                                  • Rock fall - Platform
                                  • Roof of the arch collapses creating a stack
                                    • Arch - Stack
                                    • Stack is eroded leaving a stump
                                      • Stack - Stump
                          • Crack - Notch
          • Crack - Notch

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