B3 - E

  • Created by: zoolouise
  • Created on: 02-06-15 19:51
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  • The circulatory system
    • Blood
      • The liquid part of the blood called plasma carries a number of important substances around the body.
        • dissolved food substances such as glucose
        • carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs
        • hormones from the glands where they're made to their target cells
        • plasma proteins sch as antibodies
        • waste substances such as urea
      • Red blood cells are adapted to their function of carrying oxygen in a number of ways
        • they're very small so they can pass through smallest blood vessels
        • they're shaped like binconcave discs so they have a large surface area to exchange oxygen quicker
        • they contain hemoglobin o combine with oxygen, haemoglobin makes them red.
        • they don't have a nucleus so more haemoglobin can fit in
      • Haemoglobin in red blood cells reacts with oxygen in the lungs, forming oxyhaemoglobin. The reaction is reversible when the oxyhaemoglobin reaches the tissues, the oxygen is released.
    • Blood vessels
      • The different types of blood vessels have different jobs.
        • Arteries transport blood away from the heart to the tissues
        • Veins transport the blood back to the heart from the tissues
        • Capillaries link arteries to veins and allow materials to pass between the blood and the tissues.
      • The structures of arteries, veins and capillaries are adapted to carry out specific functions
        • Arteries have a thick muscular and elastic wall to resist the high pressure
        • Veins have large lumen and valves to try and keep the blood moving back to the heart because the pressure is low
        • Capillaries have permeable walls so substances can be transferred between the blood and the tissues
    • The heart
      • Different parts of the heart work together to circulate the blood
        • Left and right atria receive blood from veins
        • The left and right ventricles pump blood out into arteries.
        • The semilunar, tricuspid and bicuspid valves prevent any backflow of blood.
        • The pumonary veins and the vena cava re the main veins carrying the blood back to the heart. The aorta and pulmonary arteries carry blood away fromt he heart.
      • The left ventricle has a thicker muscle wall than right ventricle as it has to pump blood all around the body, not just to the lungs.
      • The blood's pumped to the lungs and return to the heart to be pumped to the body. This is called a double circulatory system. This means that blood is at higher pressure and flows to the tissues at a faster rate.


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