The Church in England on the Eve of Reformation, 1529

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  • Created by: Isabelle
  • Created on: 02-04-14 21:04
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  • The Church in England on the Eve of Reformation, 1529
    • Unpopular Church?
      • Corruption, Christian humanists believed this
      • Simony- buying + selling of offices
      • Pluralism-holding of more than one office
      • Nepotism - offices given to friends + family
      • Uneducated priests- couldn't do job
      • Powerful bishops- spent time as government officials not in their duties
      • Erastianism- Church effectively controlled by King not churchmen
      • Antipapalism- they were corrupt, remote + more interested in Italian politics
      • Monks + Friars enjoyed lavish lifestyle, little sense of vocation
      • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, chief minister, seen as embodiment of all church's flaws
        • He was Chancellor of England, Archbishop of York, Bishop of Lincoln + Abbot of St.Albans
    • Humanism
      • John Colet, important clergyman (Dean of St. Paul's cathedral)
        • 1511 preached anticlerical sermon before Convocation (Church Parliament)
      • Thomas More, London lawyer + scholar, criticised clergy
        • Book = Utopia, friendship w/greatest Humanist, Erasmus of Rotterdam. His book 'In Praise of Folly' = satire of clergy
      • Humanists not powerful, little indication before 1529 of Reformation
      • Feared criticism of personnel + procedures would lead to heresy
        • Heresy spreading in France, Germany, Switzerland + Low countries, mean schism + conflict
      • More + Erasmus were certainly anticlerical but also Catholics
    • Henry VIII
      • Real Head of the Church of England, appointed top Church offices + Pope approved these choices
      • Little interest in reforming ideas, conservative Catholic feared reform would lead to instability + range of radical + dangerous ideas
      • Wrote book denouncing Luther's ideas - Assertio Septem Sacramentorum
    • Henry VIII's attitude to the Church and to religion
      • At heart, good Catholic
      • Was pro-papal, defended Pope's authority against attack from Lutheran heretics in Germany
      • Relations w/papacy successive popes agreed to appoint Wolsey to powerful church offices at King's bidding
      • In divorce crisis, Henry spent 6 years trying to persuade Pope to agree, break was last resort
      • Thought heresy v. wrong as threatened power of crown + order of society. Even during divorce crisis, H condemned works of heretics:Tyndale, Frith + Bilney
      • Supervised condemnation of Lambert 1538 for denying real presence. Cromwell executed 1540 for heresy
      • Also H was Erastian - exercised full powever over Church, key to support power as King. Crucial area of patronage, used to reward loyal servants
    • Wolsey
      • Not typical of other bishops, most actually appointed deputies for jobs
      • Unpopular because he was King's chief minister not because he was corrupt. Criticism more vocal after fall.
      • Pluralist, nepotist + at least 2 illegitimate kids
      • Had combined offices in Church and state
      • Flamboyant and wealthy lifestyle at odds with position
      • Fell from power just before the Reformation
      • Wolsey fell because he lost the confidence of H VIII - annulment
    • Monasteries
      • Church building was flourishing 1520s, tithes paid, £ in wills etc
      • Numbers coming for ordination also healthy
      • Monasteries operating efficiently, great landowners, no scandals, no opposition during first two decades of 16thC
      • Christopher Haigh shown no real evidence for widespread anticlericalism
        • John Colet's sermons + Hunne case 1514 isolated examples.
    • Support for Heresy
      • English heretical group- Lollards- underground movement, no powerful backers
      • Increased persecution of Lollards in 1520s made them less significant
      • Reforming ideas + pamphlets from Germany + Low countries did have some impact in SE England for intellectuals, but to most powerful men, ideas = dangerous
      • Reformation in Europe = spearheaded by churchmen, such as Luther in Germany + Zwingli in Switzerland
      • Made headway in independent Imperial Cities + small territorial political units
      • Ideas unlikely to make headway in large, centralised country like England, unless the Kings adopted reforming ideas
  • Overview
    • The Church in England on the Eve of Reformation, 1529
      • Unpopular Church?
        • Corruption, Christian humanists believed this
        • Simony- buying + selling of offices
        • Pluralism-holding of more than one office
        • Nepotism - offices given to friends + family
        • Uneducated priests- couldn't do job
        • Powerful bishops- spent time as government officials not in their duties
        • Erastianism- Church effectively controlled by King not churchmen
        • Antipapalism- they were corrupt, remote + more interested in Italian politics
        • Monks + Friars enjoyed lavish lifestyle, little sense of vocation
        • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, chief minister, seen as embodiment of all church's flaws
          • He was Chancellor of England, Archbishop of York, Bishop of Lincoln + Abbot of St.Albans
      • Humanism
        • John Colet, important clergyman (Dean of St. Paul's cathedral)
          • 1511 preached anticlerical sermon before Convocation (Church Parliament)
        • Thomas More, London lawyer + scholar, criticised clergy
          • Book = Utopia, friendship w/greatest Humanist, Erasmus of Rotterdam. His book 'In Praise of Folly' = satire of clergy
        • Humanists not powerful, little indication before 1529 of Reformation
        • Feared criticism of personnel + procedures would lead to heresy
          • Heresy spreading in France, Germany, Switzerland + Low countries, mean schism + conflict
        • More + Erasmus were certainly anticlerical but also Catholics
      • Henry VIII
        • Real Head of the Church of England, appointed top Church offices + Pope approved these choices
        • Little interest in reforming ideas, conservative Catholic feared reform would lead to instability + range of radical + dangerous ideas
        • Wrote book denouncing Luther's ideas - Assertio Septem Sacramentorum
      • Henry VIII's attitude to the Church and to religion
        • At heart, good Catholic
        • Was pro-papal, defended Pope's authority against attack from Lutheran heretics in Germany
        • Relations w/papacy successive popes agreed to appoint Wolsey to powerful church offices at King's bidding
        • In divorce crisis, Henry spent 6 years trying to persuade Pope to agree, break was last resort
        • Thought heresy v. wrong as threatened power of crown + order of society. Even during divorce crisis, H condemned works of heretics:Tyndale, Frith + Bilney
        • Supervised condemnation of Lambert 1538 for denying real presence. Cromwell executed 1540 for heresy
        • Also H was Erastian - exercised full powever over Church, key to support power as King. Crucial area of patronage, used to reward loyal servants
      • Wolsey
        • Not typical of other bishops, most actually appointed deputies for jobs
        • Unpopular because he was King's chief minister not because he was corrupt. Criticism more vocal after fall.
        • Pluralist, nepotist + at least 2 illegitimate kids
        • Had combined offices in Church and state
        • Flamboyant and wealthy lifestyle at odds with position
        • Fell from power just before the Reformation
        • Wolsey fell because he lost the confidence of H VIII - annulment
      • Monasteries
        • Church building was flourishing 1520s, tithes paid, £ in wills etc
        • Numbers coming for ordination also healthy
        • Monasteries operating efficiently, great landowners, no scandals, no opposition during first two decades of 16thC
        • Christopher Haigh shown no real evidence for widespread anticlericalism
          • John Colet's sermons + Hunne case 1514 isolated examples.
      • Support for Heresy
        • English heretical group- Lollards- underground movement, no powerful backers
        • Increased persecution of Lollards in 1520s made them less significant
        • Reforming ideas + pamphlets from Germany + Low countries did have some impact in SE England for intellectuals, but to most powerful men, ideas = dangerous
        • Reformation in Europe = spearheaded by churchmen, such as Luther in Germany + Zwingli in Switzerland
        • Made headway in independent Imperial Cities + small territorial political units
        • Ideas unlikely to make headway in large, centralised country like England, unless the Kings adopted reforming ideas
    • 1530's Church broke from Rome - always been a part of since Christianity arrived w/St Augusine
    • 1534 Henry = Head of Church
      • Church IN England now Church OF England
    • Unlike reformations in Europe, wasn't met with lots of violence etc
    • Sui generis -compromise betw/ Catholics + Protestants
    • No great religious leader like Luther, Calvin - just monarchy
  • Absenteeism- churchman didn't carry out role or even reside in parish/diocese

    Comments

    Sensei

    Amazing mind map! Thank you so much! :)

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