GEOGRAPHY The challenges of an urban world

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  • The challenges of an urban world
    • Urbanisation- rural to urban migration. Cities are growing
    • Developing city growth
      • Faster than developed
      • Natural population growth, more jobs in city (less transport so less commuters), Bright light syndrome- better in the city
    • Developed city growth
      • already grown- during industrial revolution, good transport means commute to city for work. Move in during Uni and out to start a family
      • Counter urbanisation occurs
    • Mega cities- cities with a population of over 10 million
      • Eg Los Angeles (developed) , Mumbai or Rio de Janeiro  (developing)
    • City structures
      • Developed  cities
        • CBD- in centre, shops etc. highest cost land
        • Inner city- terraced housing, olf factories, no gardens/drive
        • Inner suburbs- cheaper than innner city, larger housing, semi-detached with small drive/garden
        • Outer suburbs- largest housing with gardens/drive, due to cheapest land
      • Developing cities
        • CBD- in centre, shops etc, highest land value
        • Industry, runs from outskirts to the centre, good transports to centre- products and people in/out
        • High cost housing- runs through outskirts and then around centre- good transport therefore east to get to centre
        • Periferia- developed favela, been there longer, now has some infrastructure
        • Favelas- impermanent housing for people who recently moved from rural, no infrastructure and on hazardous land
    • Challenges
      • Developing (Mumbai/ mexico city)
        • Housing- not permanent, hazardous and overcrowded.Transport- varied, polluting, could car ban like Beijing Olympics. Water- not clean, malaria Informal economy- no tax, low pay and not guaranteed so poverty occurs
      • Developed (London/ Amsterdam)
        • Food- cant grow own so outsource, costly and CO2 up. Water- high demand, low rainfall in city. Transport- congestion, pollution and CO2 emissions. Waste- lots! methane released, space, cost
    • managing challenges
      • York
        • park+ride, electric car charging points, waste reduction leaflets
      • Amsterdam
        • electric cars, electric trams, a small subway system and cycle friendly
      • Rio de jeneiro
        • loans for house development, govt put infrastructure in place, pay back over time
      • Curitiba, brazil
        • govt bus system, rapid travel 2million people every day
    • developing countries often cant afford to help overcome challenges so NGOs help
      • CURE- centre for urban and regional excellence.
        • Slum development, water and power supply, education sanitation etc




 it's really helpful.thanks.=)



Thank you for this. It helped me for my exam today! :)

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