The Challenge of Multicultural societies in the UK 

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  • The Challenge of Multicultural societies in the UK
    • Multicultural societies
      • A multicultural society contains people from different national, linguistic, religious and/or cultural background
    • The UK
      • 14.1% of the Uk population is from ethnic minorities
      • The largest ethnic minority in the Uk is Asian
      • The main reason for the presence of ethnic minorities  in the UK is employement
      • Northeast has the highest percentage of whites and therefore the lowest percentage of ethnic minorities
        • 95.3% white
      • London has the highest percentage of ethnic minorities and so the lowest percentage of whites
        • 59.8 % white
      • Asain/Asain british have a tendancy to concentrate in London, with 18.5% of London being this ethncity
        • As well as 13.3 % of London being black African/Caribbean or black British
    • Geographical Distribution of Geographical groups
      • Greater Manchester - Home to a labour intensive industry such as the cotton industry's providing many jobs
      • Aberdeen - home to large oil production again providing many jobs
      • London - After the war, many companies such as London Transport and tube rail recruited workers from the common wealth to rebuild the country. There is also a large concentration of labour intensive jobs such as the car industry and textile indutry
      • Dockwork in Teeside, again attracked workers
    • Reasons for the development of multicultural societies
      • !940s-60s : large influx of immigrants from countries of the former British empire this is because a workforce was needed to reconstruct the british economy, following the death of the mean who went to war.
        • 'The Empire Wind rush'
        • Recruited by british rail, London transport and NHS
        • Many Indians came to work in the labour intensive textile industry's and to escape poverty
      • 1972: influx of Ugandan Asains, because the dictactor of Uganda, Idi Amin decieded to expel all asains to Uganda
      • 1980s-90s, there was a significant growth of asylum sekers in the UK due to countries being affected by war and conflict, because the UK is part of the UN it is under responsibility of not returning refugees to their country if there is chance of them facing persecution
      • Since 2004, their has been an increase in immigration to the Uk from Eastern European countries for example Poland, due to the enlargement of the EU
        • The immigration was mainly because of the lower wages and poorer standard of living in poland
    • Legal Immigrant - a person who comes into the country to settle usually for economic reasons
    • Untitled
    • Illegal immigrant - a person who takes up residence in a foreign country without official permission to do so
    • Asylum seekers - people who have fled their country of origin because they claim to be victims of persicution
      • If claims of an Asylum seekers are found to be genuine, they are granted refugee in a country
    • Enoch Powell Speech -1968
      • Conservative MP for Wolverhampton
      • Warned about the dangers of immigration in his Rivers of blood speech
      • He was concerned that the impacts of mass immigration would  causes housing shortages, neighbourhoods being changed, becoming 2nd class citizens and hospitals and classes filling
    • Issues associated with multicultural Britain
      • Housing
        • During initial phases of immigration, multiple occupancy was widespread in rented accommodation within the inner city's. This leads to overcrowding and therefore a poor standard of living.
        • As migrants are often used as a cheap source of labour, they attend to go towards the poorest housing areas of major cities and that are also in close proximity to there work
          • E.g. Manningham, Bradford
        • When migrants move into the area, they tend to go towards areas that have people of a similar ethnicity as for a sense of safety and security. This means areas become dominated by a particular ethncity
          • It is likely to continue with a clustering of people from similar ethnic background this is called Geographical Housing Inertia
          • Can lead to white flight
          • Meaning even with increasing wealth they will still choose to live in the same ethnic community
            • Called Ethnic Absoutism
          • Chain Migration
        • Positive
          • More recently there has been greater owner occupancy, and more wealthy people have moved out of the inner city areas and into the suburban areas
          • Many individuals from ethnic minorities run small businesses such as shops and also live in the upper part of the same building
        • CHAIN MIGRATION + WHITE FLIGHT + ETHNIC ABSOLUTISM = GEOGRAPHICAL HOSING INERTIA
      • Education
        • concentrations of particular ethnic minorities have led to a segregation within the city, this then means schools are dominated by one particular ethnicity
        • Educational requirements are needed for schools with a high percentage of ethnic minorities such as extra English lessons, for students and parents
        • In Bradford school kids are bussed from all Asian schools to all white schools and vice versa, the project aims to break down racial barriers between the children
        • Sikhs, Muslims, and Hindus attending different schools due to the segregation within the Asian communities, due to the arguments over the fight for council funding.
          • Example in Bradford
      • Language
        • New migrants find it very difficult to find employment if they are not fluent in the host language
          • Example : Bradford
        • Second generation migrants grow up with the second language and have differnet aspirations to their parents,
          • This means they are more likely to integrate causing tension within the ethnic culture if they adopt the host culture
      • Religion
        • Migrants are most likely to have a different religion to the host population which can then cause tension with employers and authorities when requesting for religious holidays and practices
      • Economic
        • In the Uk, there is anti racism legislation, employment rights and equal opportunities to combat discrimination and racism
        • There is still resentment over the cost of housing, education and employment benefits of migrants from the host population
        • The governmental policy over housing asylum seekers in rural areas of the UK has caused resentment from the locals
        • Migrants now account for 1/8 th of the Uks working age copulations, which is proved to be boosting the economic input by £6 billion
        • Many of the host population still think that migrants are to blame for the lack of jobs during the recession
      • CASE STUDY 1 : BRADFORD
        • 72% white
        • 16% Asain
        • 75%-90% of Asians in manningham (inner city area)
        • over 90% of whites in Tong and Wibsey (suburban area)
        • In the summer of 2001, Bradford descended into riots after a demonstration against the National front (against migration) by the Anti - Nazi League. Racial tensions led to the confrontation of Asian and white youths, the district of manningham where the unrest started was 75% Asian.
          • White youths attacked Asian businesses, whilst an Asian man was charged for the arson of a local labour club
          • Over 1,000 youths where believed to be inolved
      • CASE STUDY 2 : MIXENDEN, HALIFAX
        • a predominately white,working class,council estate on the outskirts of halifax
        • An areas of high unemployment which has suffered neglect
        • Government has a policy of dispersing Asylum seekers away from London and the south- East, and Halifax play its part in this
          • The council receives extra funding to make housing available to asylum seekers, this is usually spent bringing poor condition propertys into use
        • Local residents were concerned about the increase in asylum seekers and resented all the benefits
        • in 2008 elections, residents of mixenden, (traditionally labour) voted for the far right BNP
          • Against Migrations
  • Meaning even with increasing wealth they will still choose to live in the same ethnic community
    • Called Ethnic Absoutism

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