The Cell Cycle

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  • Created by: Hannah
  • Created on: 05-02-13 16:18
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      • G1- The cell grows and carries out protein synthesis and other cellular functions.
      • S- The cell replicates all of it's DNA. At the end of this stage all of the chromosomes have two chromatids.
      • G2- The cytoplasmic organelles replicate and the cell keeps growing, proteins needed for cell division are made.
      • Prophase
        • Metaphase
          • Anaphase
            • Telophase
              • Chromatids reach opposite poles on spindle, uncoil and become chromosomes again. Nuclear envelope forms around each group of chromosomes so there are now two nuclei.
            • Centromere's divide separating each pair of sister chromatids. The spindle's contract, pulling chromatids to opposite ends of cell.
          • The chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell and become attached to the spindle by their centromere.
        • Chromosomes condense. Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell, form protein fibres called spindle. Nuclear envelope breaks down.
      • By the end of mitosis there are two nuclei in one cytoplasm.
      • During cytokinesis the  cytoplasm surrounding the two nuclei splits forming two separate genetically identical cells.
    • CANCER
      • Cancer is the result of uncontrolled cell division caused by mutations (changes in the base sequence of DNA), these cells form tumours
      • Some cancer treatments disrupt the cell cycle.
        • G1 phase- chemotherap prevents the synthesis of enzymes needed for DNA replication. This means cell cant enter the S phase.
        • S phase- Radiation and some drugs damage DNA so when the cell gets into the S-phase it detects damaged DNA and kills itself.


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