The Causes of Urban Growth

Refers to AQA A2 Geography

World Cities Option

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  • The Causes of Urban Growth
    • Natural Population Growth
      • Urban areas tend to have fairly low age profiles
      • Younger adults (15-40 years) have traditionally migrated from rural areas.
        • These younger adults are in their fertile years so have more children
          • This means rates of natural increase are higher in cities than rural areas.
    • Rural-Urban Migration
      • Push Factors
        • Cause people to MOVE AWAY FROM RURAL AREAS.
          • Push factors tend to be more significant than pull factors in LEDCs
        • POPULATION GROWTH
          • Means the same amount of land has to support an increasing number of people.
          • This leads to over-farming, soil erosion and low yields.
        • AGRICULTURAL PROBLEMS
          • Desertification because of low rainfall.
          • Inheritance systems that cause land to be divided into small plots.
          • Systems of tenure and debt on loans taken out to support agricultural change.
        • DISEASE
          • High levels of diseases locally.
          • Inadequate medical provision and services.
        • NATIONAL DEBTS
          • Changes introduced to attempt to pay off national debts.
        • NATURAL DISASTERS
          • People flee the areas affected and do not return
          • e.g. floods in Mozambique
        • WAR AND CIVIL STRIFE
          • Cause people to flee homes/ become refugees.
      • Pull Factors
        • Attract people to MOVE TO URBAN AREAS
        • EMPLOYMENT
          • In facories or service industries e.g. hotels
          • Better paid work than rural areas.
        • THE INFORMAL SECTOR
          • Selling street goods
          • Transport - Rickshaw/ Taxi Drivers
        • SOCIAL PROVISIONS
          • Basic needs e.g. education/ healthcare
          • Entertainment and tourism
        • QUALITY OF LIFE
          • Perception of better quality of life led by media.

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