The Biological Model for Gambling

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Grace
  • Created on: 02-05-13 17:11
View mindmap
  • The Biological Model for Gambling
    • The biological approach proposes that problems with gambling are the result of biological change within the body which are irreversible.
    • SUPPORT = Slutske  - looked at the concordance rate in MZ and DZ twins in relation to gampling. Used 5000 participants between 32 and 43 years old. Found the concordance rate for MZ twins was 49.2% which was twice as high as DZ
      • BUT since the concordance rate was at 49.2% it suggests that it can't just be genetics that is influencing it.
        • Slutske does acknowledge this and says that a 'perfect storm' of inherited vulnerability combined with gambling in role models is the main contributor.
          • Good - this makes it more holistic as they are considering other factors that are very important - not being completely reductionist.
          • Since there is no specific gene that has been found to be the cause of initiation this causes problems for the explanation as they cannot stop the addiction before it is formed.
    • INITIATION = GENETICS
      • SUPPORT = Slutske  - looked at the concordance rate in MZ and DZ twins in relation to gampling. Used 5000 participants between 32 and 43 years old. Found the concordance rate for MZ twins was 49.2% which was twice as high as DZ
        • BUT since the concordance rate was at 49.2% it suggests that it can't just be genetics that is influencing it.
          • Slutske does acknowledge this and says that a 'perfect storm' of inherited vulnerability combined with gambling in role models is the main contributor.
            • Good - this makes it more holistic as they are considering other factors that are very important - not being completely reductionist.
            • Since there is no specific gene that has been found to be the cause of initiation this causes problems for the explanation as they cannot stop the addiction before it is formed.
    • MAINTENANCE = DOPAMINE
      • This is a neurotransmitter which is associated with pleasure centre of the brain. Studies indicate that people who have predisposing factor also have low levels of dopamine. When they gamble the pleasure they recieve increases their dopamine levels more than the general population. They like this feeling and therefore maintain it
        • SUPPORT = Cohen et a; - found that low levels of dopamine levels induced by drugs enhances the effects of slot machines gambling in pathological gamblers.
        • SUPPORT = Olds and Miller - found that rats will press a lever to electrically stimulate their reward areas of their brain rather than having se or food. Suggests its an adaptive response - if we didnt find sex and food pleasurable we die and fail to reproduce.
    • RELAPSE = WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS
      • Once behaviour is stopped the gambler may experience negative symptoms like anxiety, sweating, tremors, increased heart rate. Relapsing removes these withdrawal symptoms. These responses make  people return to gambling to increase the levels again.
    • Does not look at individual differences - some do it for months and the stop - maybe due to something like depression or stress?
      • Other than slutske's slight attempt it doesnt look at SLT and learning the behaviour. May be due to liking gambling and needing money - one leads to the other.
        • Deterministic - saying you WILL have it and can't control it - some people do stop showing it cant just be biologically based. It will lead people to blaming their biology instead of taking responsibility.

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Addictive behaviour resources »