Bio Exp of Bipolar

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  • The Biological Explanation  of Bipolar
    • AO2
      • SE: Bertelsen et al (1977) found MZ conc 67% whereas DZ only 20%.
        • Suggests genetics play a big role as MZs share 100% DNA and DZs only share 50%
        • BUT: C & E rel can't be est between genes and bipolar. MZs treated more similarly than DZs as they're identical and same sex etc so could still be the increased shared environ experiences
      • Alt exp: psychody approach suggests depressive episodes are due to the ID being dominant, displaying repressed emo of anger etc directed towards itself rather than the actual cause which could of been bad rel with primary carer or traumatic event in early childhood
      • Not testable: in order to set up an exp to est a C & E rel need to show genes/sero causes bipolar directly. Would need to control every aspect eg upbringing/home life/school life of a persons life. Twin/adp studies can be done but environ never completely controlled, Ps have diff upbringings/exp so still couldn't be sure it was purely genes/sero. Controlling someones life to this extent is impossible so C & E rel can never be est. Hence, unfalsifiable.
      • App to real life: knowing which chemical imbalance (sero) causes bipolar is helpful as scientists can develop drugs that reverse the effects. Embryo screening too, in theory embryos could be screened for it by using the identified genes and seeing if its in the DNA, IVF-select ones without genes. More research needed but could prevent disorder being passed on further. So, useful!
    • AO1
      • Genetics
        • Family history studies suggest that all mood disorders are linked to heritable factors.
        • Conception: 50% mums DNA and 50% dads DNA combine = unique combo of genes
        • Individual may have specific combo that gen predisposes them to bipolar & increases their likeliness of dev it.
        • Gen pre is in genotype but it'll only be expressed in the phenotype if triggered by environ factors.
        • Genes ass = ADCY2, ANK3, TRANK1
      • Neurotransmitters
        • Serotonin: connected to functions such as sleep, wakefulness, eating, sexual activity, impulsivity, learning and memory
        • Abnormal func of brain circuits involving serotonin can contribute to manic dep.
          • Too high = mania and too low = depression. Levels meaning the amount in a synapse between two neurones.


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