Fold mountains

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  • The Andes - Fold mountains CS
    • Background info
      • World's largest mountain range - 7,000 km long
      • The highest point is Mount Acongagua
      • The Andes extends the length of South America; some countries it goes through are, Argentina, Chile and Ecuador
    • Farming
      • Farmed land is limited to the valley bottoms and terraced slopes (steps cut into the hillsides to create flat areas of land)
      • Subsistence crops grown for the farmer's family include, potatoes and maize
      • Crops grown to sell include soybeans, tobacco, coffee and cotton
      • Animals such as llamas and alpacas are kept on high areas of land for transport and for their meat, wool and milk
    • Hydroelectric power
      • The steep slopes provide a good head speed of water to drive the turbines, and narrow valleys can dam the flow of watter and provide a steady supply
        • E.g. the Yuncan Project Dams in northeast Peru
    • Mining
      • The Andes has a range of important minerals and the Andean countries rank in the top 10 for tin,nickel,  silver and gold.
        • More than half of Peru's exports are from mining
        • The Yanacocha Gold Mine in Peru is the world's largest gold mine; the building of this mine caused the nearby town of Cajamarca to grow in population as it brought alternative sources of jobs.
          • However, this growth also brings problems such as lack of services and an increased crime rate
    • Tourism
      • Tourists are attracted by natural attractions in the Andes, such as mountain peaks, volcanoes, glaciers and highland lakes e.g. Lake Titicaca (the largest lake in South America)
      • There are also remains of early settlements built by the Incas at Machu Picchu and Cusco which attract thousands of visitors a year
        • Tourists can go on what is called an 'Inca Trail'which leads to Machu Picchu
    • How people adapt
      • Steep relief
        • Llamas and alpacas are used to transport things up and down the mountains as they can easily climb the steep slopes. Also, terraces are cut to flatten the ground used to grow crops and prevent soil slipping and nutrients being lost
      • Limited communications
        • Many of the transport passes are very high e.g the major transport route between Chile and Argentina is the Uspallata pass which is 3,800 m high. People also tend to grow subsistence crops for themselves rather than importing food
      • Poor soils
        • The people live in valleys and keep animals high up the mountains where the soil isn't very good


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