"The Weimar Republic was never seriously threatened in the years 1919-1923 - Agree or disagree

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  • Intro
    • Challenged by extreme political movements e.g. nationalism & communism
    • 1919 Spartacist uprising
      • Kapp Putsch 1920
      • Munich Putsch 1923-progression
    • Disagree-clear line of argument
    • "The Weimar Republic was never seriously threatened in the years 1919-1923"
      • Not valid
        • Communist & nationalist opposition (KPD-DNVP)
          • Widespread resentment & desperation of German people
          • Implies too liberal & not enough structure
        • Spartacist uprising 5-13th Jan 1919
          • Communism motif links to poor social conditions of working class e.g. starvation, rickets
            • Gov too focused on administration rather than wellbeing
            • Hadn't been shut down after 5 days, no evidence to show failure
              • E forced to rely on Freikorps (RW & opposed him)
                • Demonstrates desperation & how close SU was to overthrowing
                  • Emphasises severity as brutality was required
        • Kapp Putsch 13-18th March 1920
          • RW nature demonstrates opposition across political spectrum
            • Desire for authority represents lack of organization within WR
          • Involvement of Freikorps intensifies threat to WR
            • Vital force previously relied on now fighting against them
          • Held gov responsible for treaty
            • Disapproval
          • Politicians weren't safe in Berlin
            • Only reason Putsch stopped = general strike
              • Ebert - no support from army
                • Weakness- army had no faith in government
        • Munich Putsch 1923
          • Early demonstration of Hitler's capabilities as a leader
          • Opposition from a new source
      • Valid
        • Why this point isn't valid
          • Reasons for failure = 2 extreme parties opposing each other rather than strength of WR
            • Plausible that the WR benefitted from opposition i.e. would the Freikorps have helped had they not opposed communists to such an extent?
            • Immediate calls for Freikorps & strikes demonstrates severity of uprisings & how close the WR were to being overthrown
        • All attempts failed
          • Imbalance of power between WR & people emphasised by the WR being able to end uprisings
        • Strength-Ebert being able to rely on communist & nationalists
          • Freikorps co-operation Jan 1919, respect from army
            • Also - General strikes from public which ended Kapp Putsch
              • Demonstrates respect from general public & communists
                • Workers following demands to go in strike
                  • Although rebelled against WR earlier, still willing to follow demands
                    • Respect demonstrated
                      • Uprisings impulsive rather than threatening
                      • If workers resented WR so much, would have created a new uprising or refuse to help to add to pressure
        • WR kept power in this period
      • Conclusion
        • Evident they were threatened otherwise Ebert wouldn't have had to use the Freikorps /general strike
        • Link back to q
          • Extreme to suggest there was 'never' a threat
        • Not valid

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