The USA Section one

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  • Impact of WW1
    • Return to normalcy
      • Harding, President in 1921, wanted to shift the focus back onto the USA after the war
        • Black soldiers hoped normalcy meant greater equality.
    • Isolationism
      • 'Buy American' became a significant watchword.
        • Tariffs on goods such as the Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act did encourage people to 'Buy American'.
      • Introduced tariffs that favoured American business
        • Not Joining the League of Nations and not setting up colonies
        • Tariffs on goods such as the Fordney-McCumber Tariff Act did encourage people to 'Buy American'.
      • Immigration reductions introduced
        • 1921 Emergency Quota Act restricted the number of immigrants allowed into the USA to 357,000 a year
          • Changed to 150,000 a year in 1924
      • Congress passed Neutrality Act that restricted what help the USA could give to countries at war
        • USA did help Europe rebuild economically and brokered the Washington Conference of 1921 - 1922, which set limits on national navies
      • New technology produced consumer goods far more cheaply.
        • 'Hire Purchase' allowed people to buy these goods over a period of time.
          • All this contributed to a 'boom' period that suggested Republican policies were working
    • How did the presidency change?
      • Many people came to feel that Wilson (who took the USA into the war) took too big a part in government decision-making.
        • Wilson had campaigned to keep the USA out of the war and then took them into it + didn't consult congress about promoting the League of Nations.
          • Wilson's behaviour for many politicians and Americans was an unwelcome change and came close to breaking the separations of powers principle.
      • Wilson believed the president should be involved in law making.
        • Wilson drafted his own bills and introduced them to congress himself
          • Wilson's behaviour for many politicians and Americans was an unwelcome change and came close to breaking the separations of powers principle.
      • The Appeal of Republicanism
        • Wilson's behaviour as president led people to turn to republican ideals.
          • Wilson was replaced as president by Harding, who's slogan was 'less government in business and more business in government'
            • It was not the job of the government to control the economy or to manage social problems - Laissez-faire
            • A democrat might have been elected after Harding, but the Democrats could not agree on a candidate.
              • During the Coolidge presidency, the US entered into a period  of recovery and prosperity, people began to feel Republicanism was working.
                • The 'boom' economy of the 1920's had serious flaws, but they were not clear at the time.
                  • By the time of the next Republican president, Herbert Hoover, it was clear to many people the problems of the US economy and social problems.
                    • Hoover's election campaign announced that the Republicans had eliminated poverty, encouraged equality and restored the economy.

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