twentieth century s&a

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  • The Twentieth Century Surgery and anatomy
    • 1903 Einhoven discovered the electrocardiograph (ECG) This monitors the heart rate and is useful because anaesthetic suppress normalmuscle control. the heart is a muscle this is why Chloroforn killed people.
    • 1908 Radium isolated by the Curies. this was later used to cure cancers.
    • 1914-1918 ww1 increased the need for blood and soldiers were forced to give it. this meant there would be blood banks. Sodium Citrate was added to blood to prevent it clotting. Blood could now be fitted into a syringe and injected into the patient. the doctors knew how much blood had to be given. now it was possible to store blood for several weeks during ww1
    • 1938 British National Blood Transfusion service is set up this meant that surgeons had a back up supply of blood. severe cuts and blood loss was no longer a danger to the body. all the surgeons had to do was tie up arteries and and pump in new blood.
    • 1942 Development of Curare. this relaxes the muscles so only light anaesthesia is needed. this reduces recovery time for the patient. before this time patients could sleep for hours sometimes days after the opperation
    • 1953 the development of heart lung machines which keep the patient alive during the operation. this lead to heart replacement operations and more recently operations to repair damaged hearts
    • 1960s - development of micro surgery. possible to join nerves so limbs that've been chopped off can be put back on and made to work normally. possible to replace organs. kidneys and liver
    • 1967 Dr. Christian Barnard performed the first heart transplant operation
    • Key Hole surgery. small hole in the surface of the body. the surgeon puts in a endoscope through the key hole and conducts the operation without making any large cuts in the body


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