The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan

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  • The Truman Doctrine and The Marshall Plan
    • Because of the spread of Soviet control in Eastern Europe, USA increased involvement in Europe, USSR determined to defend itself against threats and attack from West. US determined to stop communism spread. Overall increased tensions
    • Truman's concerns
      • Europe devastated by war, no money or job in many countries
      • Communism was attractive (especially in France and Italy), made sure everyone had enough
      • Many in Eastern Europe had been liberated by Soviets
      • Countries like Romania, Poland and Bulgaria already had communist governments forced on them, fear this would happen to other countries
      • Some governments (Greece and Turkey) were too poor to combat communist revolutions in their own countries
      • If Greece and Turkey became communist, then other countries would follow (Domino Theory)
    • Truman Doctrine (1947)
      • In a speech, Truman set out with USA should get involved
        • Countries faced a choice between communism and capitalism
        • Communism was bad because it meant people couldn't be free
        • USA must try to contain spread of communism
        • USA should provide money and troops to help free government to combat communist takeovers
    • Marshall Plan (1947)
      • $13 billion from USA to rebuild Europe
      • Communism appealed to mos with nothing to lose, hoped to stop communism by giving people a stake in the capitalist system
      • Countries to trade with USA to get money
      • 16 Western countries took money including Britain, West Germany and France
      • Soviet Union criticised Marshall Plan as an attack on them because it threatened communist control in Eastern Europe

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