'The Supreme Court had more influence on the African American struggle for civil rights than any other branch of government'

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  • Created on: 21-12-18 20:01
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  • 'The Supreme Court had more influence on the African American struggle for civil rights than any other branch of government'
    • Supreme Court
      • 1873 Slaughterhouse Case - allowed for legal segregation and Jim Crow laws
      • 1896 Plessy vs FergusonCase - ruled 'Separate but equal', fuelling discrimination and segregation
      • 1992 Freeman vs Pitts Case - allowed segregation in a school, shows continousrestriction
      • 1954 Brown vs Topeka Board of Education - shows change in attitude, catalysed desegregation and integration and overruledPlessy vs Ferguson
      • 1956 Browder vs Gayle - ruled segregation on buses unconstitutional, catalysed desegregation and overruledPlessy vs Ferguson, aiding civil rights movement
    • Congress
      • Implemented Civil Rights Acts which gave AA legal equality
      • 1964 Civil Rights Act - implemented the integration of schools, voting rights and prohibited racial discrimination
      • 1988 Civil Rights Restoration Act -  enforced legal rights, showing determination and committement from Congress
      • 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments - acknowledged equality of AA in constitution, gave voting rights and citizenship
      • 1965 Voting Rights Act - ensured AA's right to vote under all circumstances, increasing position within society
      • 1965 Freedmen's Bureau - gave AA aid in education and employment to prove social and economic stability
      • Dwyer Anti-Lynching Bill - turned down in 1913, 1922 and 1924, hostility reflects congressional indifference
      • Attempted to impeach Johnson - suggests supreme power over federal government
    • Presidents
      • FDR - 1941 ExecutiveOrder 8802 - desegregated federal employment, challenging segregation, change in attitude
      • FDR - 1941 Fair Employment Commission - band discriminatory employment practices
      • FDR - New Deal - Employed AA (WPA employed350K annually) showing benefit to economic rights
      • Truman - 1948 ExecutiveOrder 9981 - desegregated military, challenging segregation, change in attitude
      • Truman - President's Committee on Civil Rights - improvedtreatmentof AA, highlighted AA concerns
      • Truman - no legislation passed, lack of legal progress / formal improvement
      • A.Johnson and Wilson opposed civil rights, did little to further progress
      • FDR - New Deal - Congresslimitied his ability to deal with civil rights issues as they opposed civil rights and he had to maintain Southern support


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