The self, Identity and Difference

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  • The self, Identity and Difference
    • Identity
      • Personal identity = name, age etc.
        • Hard to change facts about yourself.
      • The way we see ourselves and the way others see us.
      • social identity = class, gender, ethnicity etc.
        • Less fixed i.e. social mobility
      • Identity is linked to the roles you perform in society and the social groups you belong to.
    • Structuralists
      • Functionalists
        • Social institutions allocate people different roles
        • Merton institution have manifest (intended outcomes)  and latent functions (hidden outcomes)
        • Trumpbour - wealthy students are prepared for higher earning jobs and opportunities than WC students.
      • Marxism
        • Identity is based on class position
        • Cultural consumption causes people to develop different class identities.
      • Feminism
        • Patriarchal society had influenced gender identity.
        • Difference feminists - women should be treated as a diverse group with many identities.
    • Postmodernist
      • We can construct our own identities.
      • Identity is becoming more unstable as people can choose their own lifestyle and identity.
        • This leads to diversity
      • But...To consume people need money so identity is still linked to class
    • Dramaturgical model
      • Goffman - identity is deliberately constructed.
      • Goffman - society is a stage.
        • When in front of the stage you carefully control the impression you give out to others
        • When backstage you stop performing that certain role
      • Cooley - the way you think other people see you affects your behaviour and self image.
        • 'Looking glass self'
    • Labelling theory
      • I.e. Self fulfilling prophecy
      • Strong labels (criminal) can become someones master status
        • People then change their behaviour to fit the label
      • Becker - people who are labelled as deviant become outsiders
        • Wilkins - deviant outsiders often then join subcultures, creating more difference between them and society.
      • Labelling theory is a kind of interactionism
        • You can either choose to accept of reject the label

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