The Rule of Tsar Nicholas II (Part 2)

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  • Created on: 06-06-19 20:47
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  • The Rule of Tsar Nicholas II (Part 2)
    • Pyotr Stolypin
      • Prime Minister from July 1906 to September 1911
        • His two main objectives were:
          • To feed the masses and avoid famine/revolt
          • To gain peasant support
      • Stolypin's Necktie
        • Introduced field court-martials for revolutionaries
          • From 1905 to 1908, those executed for terrorism increased from 10 to 825, and those sentenced from 72 to 1741
      • Land Reforms
        • Wager on the Strong
          • Peasants were able to leave the mir to consolidate their strips of land into a single unit
          • ***** system was replaced with fenced fields
          • Incentives were given to individual farming rather than grouping in obschina
            • Almost 2 million households set up individual farms between 1907 and 1914
              • This left regions short of rural labour and added to the challenge of feeding the growing urban population
          • Land Bank system of poorly/under utilised land to allow independent peasants to buy their land
          • Stolypin wanted to appeal to the peasants, as they made up a large majority of the population
          • Difficulties
            • Peasants were reluctant to change largely
      • Industrial Progress
    • The Dumas
      • The Four Dumas
        • First
          • Lasted 2 months
          • Representation
            • 185 Kadets, 94 Trudoviks, 112 non-partisans
          • Main Events
            • Little achieved, fierce debates
            • Dissolved by the Tsar as unworkable
        • Second
          • Lasted 4 months
          • Representation
            • Over 200 from the left, the right had increased to over 60
          • Main Events
            • Left/Right debates ended in brawls
            • Fierce left wing attacks on Stolypin's land reforms
            • Cooperated with government on famine relief
        • Third
          • Last 4 and a half years
          • Representation
            • Stolypin changed the electoral system to favour upper classes, excluding peasants and workers and allowing the right to dominate
          • Main Events
            • More harmonious relations with the government, Stolypin managed to get his land reforms through (with opposition)
            • Min 4 years compulsory primary education
            • National health insurance scheme for workers
            • Steps to modernising army taken
        • Fourth
          • Lasted for 2 years before suspension, later met in 1915 and 1916
          • Representation
            • Similar to third Duma
          • Main Events
            • Tense period due to Lena Goldfields
            • Church reform reducing state control
            • Universal education and increased teacher spending
    • Situation in Russia in 1914
      • Political
        • Relatively stable
          • Managed to reduce the authority of the duma quickly with Stolypin's help
            • Liberals did not feel it correct to openly challenge what happened, and radical groups lacked support due to leaders being exiles
          • Troops remained loyal to the Tsar, revolutionary groups of 1905 had been overcome for the time being
          • Russia were feared by European Nations
          • Potential for growth through the Trans Siberian Railway was massive
      • Economic
        • 3.5% economical growth rate
          • Positive, but sluggish compared to European rivals
          • Rising inflation and static wage levels
        • Low industrial productivity
          • Lack of investment in modern technology hit productivity, and meant factories employed vast amounts of labour
        • Agricultural reforms increased production, and number of independent farms by 1913
          • Figure had fallen by 1914 however (suggestive of urbanisation)
        • Vast development in railways, though the Trans Atlantic Railway was yet to be completed and some areas were still not connected to the centre
      • Social
        • Population increase from 125 million to 166 million (1897 to 1914)
        • Rapid urbanisation
          • Nicholas paid little attention to living/working conditions, with only 200 of 1000 towns having piped water, and fewer with a sewage system
        • Discontent in urban areas due to inflation, wages, and conditions
          • Rising working class consciousness and potential for a challenge to authority
            • Lena Goldfields Massacre 1912
              • Miners striking for better pay and conditions
                • Employers appealed to police to arrest the strikers
                • Troops fired on and killed large numbers of miners
              • Demonstrated that the government believed the workers to be a threat
            • General Strike 1914
              • Even moderate parties began to despair of the government's methods of repression
              • WW1 prevented matters from getting out of hand
          • Number of political strikes rose due to the regime's terror tactics

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