The role of the father AO1 & AO3

  • Created by: MelFe
  • Created on: 19-04-19 12:21
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  • The role in today's society
    • The role of the father
      • Are fathers different to mothers?
        • Paquette: f athers are more likely to foster risk taking behavior by engaging  in more physical play
        • Lamb: Fathers are also preferred when children are in a positive emotional state and want stimulation, whereas mothers are preferred when children are distressed and seeking comfort
        • Hrdy: Fathers are less able than mothers to detect low levels of infant distress
      • Can fathers be just as sensitive as mothers?
        • Field: filmed 4 month old babies in face to face interactions with primary caregiver mothers, secondary caregiver fathers and primary caregiver fathers
          • Primary caregiver fathers like mothers spent more time smiling, imitating and holding infants than the secondary caregiver fathers
            • This behaviour is important in the building of attachments
      • How important then is the role of fathers in a child’s development?
        • Pedersen: the more actively involved a 6-month-old baby had been with his or her father, the higher the baby scored on infant development scales
        • Lamb:  the characteristics of individual fathers (e.g., masculinity, intellect) are much less important than the quality of the relationship established
          • children who have secure, supportive, reciprocal, and sensitive relationships with their fathers (or mothers) do better on every measure of child development
      • A03
        • P: inconsistent findings E:research  confusing because different             researchers are interested in different research questions (some interested in father as PCG,and others as SCG)           E:  former- fathers behaving differently from mothers and having a distinct role, latter- fathers can take on maternal role L: cannot easily answer the question and conclusions cannot be drawn
      • AO3
        • P: research has left unanswered questions such as if fathers have a distinct role then why aren’t children without fathers different        E:  some studies found that fathers as a secondary attachment figure have an important role in their children’s upbringing   E: other studies such as MacCallum and Golombok-   children growing up in single or same-sex parent families do not develop any differently from those in two parent heterosexual families        L: This is a weakness; suggests that the father’s role as a secondary attachment figure is not as important as some think
      • AO3
        • P: socially sensitive; can have positive and negative implications for fathers and mothers E: Research that shows greater differences between mothers and fathers can have negative implications; Bowlby’s monotropy concept-fathers can’t play the role of the PCG (led to the idea that mothers should stay at home)           E: Erica Burman:  terrible burden of responsibility on mothers pushing them into particular lifestyle choices and placing the blame on them if anything goes wrong in a child’s life L: This research is also partly responsible for the stigma full time fathers often face
    • Traditionally, Bowlby's concept of monotrpoy (constant mother care)
      • ONS report: increase in  mothers with dependent children in work, up from 3.7million in 1996 to 4.9 million in 2017
        • Now- fathers play a greater role
          • Western cultural;expectations are changing


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