The Restoration

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  • The Restoration 1658-60
    • Important figures in the Restoration
      • The Army
        • Desborough and Fleetwood
          • 2 remaining army grandees
            • similar ideals to Oliver Cromwell
          • Fleetwood was the weaker of the two; lacked personal courage and the ability to control junior officers
          • Ruled as the Committee of Security
        • Monck
          • professional soldier who had fought for Charles at the  start of CW
            • then switched to supporting parliament
          • had been left commander in chief of the Scottish army after 1651
      • MPs
        • Prynne
          • had been excluded in Pride's Purge but returned to Richard Cromwell's Parliament
          • skilled writer and propagandist
          • socially conservative: had hated the bishops, not the king
        • Hesilrige
          • one of the 5 members
          • led the opposition to Cromwell's Army and its demands in 1649
          • Commonswealthman who believed in the rule of the Rump
            • Others included Thomas Scot, Henry Vane and Edward Ludlow
      • Richard Cromwell
        • Son of Oliver Cromwell
        • limited experience of government though he was able and intelligent
        • unable to balance between the civilian and army factions
      • Lambert
        • civil war army leader
        • had been the architect of the early protectorate and the instrument of government
        • represented military interest but had fallen out with Cromwell over the Humble Petition and the Spanish War
        • invited back to the general council: collaborated with commonswealthmen
    • Why was the monarchy restored?
      • Popular Royalism
        • some demand for a monarchy (eg the monarchical features of the Humble Petition and Advice
        • Royalist uprisings (eg Booth's rising 1659)
          • But didn't gain a lot of support
        • elections to the convention: people voted overwhelmingly for royalists
          • 52 new MPs were or were the sons of people who had fought for Charles
        • Huge celebrations on the day of CII's return and on his birthday
      • Failures of the Republic/ degeneration of the Good Old Cause
        • By late 1659 the Republic was facing a 'deep crisis of support': neither the Rump nor the Army had ruled effectively
          • Failure of Richard's Protectorate
            • OC had introduced him into politics very late and had not introduced him to the army at all
              • Relied too heavily on civilan politicians
            • limited ambition and little passion for politics
            • stepped down from government in 1659, after the army council recalled the Rump
          • Unpopularity of Rump/ Army Rule (eg: London merchants had refused to pay taxes)
          • Economy
            • very high tax burden due to the size of the army
            • RC was in £2.5 mn of debt (therefore forced to call parliament)
            • by 1658 the annual deficit was £500 000
            • the army arrears were £800 000
            • regime losing legitimacy with lenders
          • Failure of the Rump
            • got into power in 1659 through and alliance with the soldiers and the sects
              • but failed to resolve anything, just attacked the army
              • failure led to a massively unpopular Committee of Safety led by Desborough and Fleetwood
                • countrywide protests/ refusal to pay taxes
        • Long term?
          • failure to achieve a strong/ viable settlement in 1649-53
            • attacked the interests of the Army resulting in a forcible dissolution
          • Failures of the Protectorate:
            • Humble Petition and Advice: too vague? Sele: seemed to be almost set up so only Cromwell could rule
              • required a fine balance between army and civilian
            • commonswealthmen felt Cromwell had betrayed the Good Old Cause and he'd lost support from supporters of the HP due to his refusal of the Crown
            • a regime mostly based on passive aquiescence than on genuine support?
      • A conservative reaction which took advantage of the turmoil after Cromwell's death?
        • encapsulated by conservatives such as Prynne
        • rise of radical sects (the Diggers, the Ranters and the Quakers)
          • Quakers: had over 60 000 members in 1659
            • refused to pay tithes and didn't recognise social superiors
              • alarmed propertied classes
      • Divisions and failings of the Republican leaders
        • very intense conflict between civilian republicans and the army, especially the Junior officers
          • eg Haselrig, Vane and Scot, who were also internally feuding
      • actions of Monck
        • declared for the Rump in 1659, eventually forcing the Army Council/ CoS to disband
        • Marched troops to London in Feb 1660
          • forced the Rump to readmit secluded members
        • advised Charles on the Declaration of Breda
      • Actions of Charles I
        • CII relocated from Catholic France to Breda in the Netherlands
        • May 1660: the Declaration of Breda
          • general pardon
          • liberty to tender consciences
          • pay army arrears
          • leave land disputes to parliament
        • possibly resulted in the speed of his restoration/ unconditional restoration
    • Timeline
      • Protectorate
        • Rump
          • Army Officers
            • Rump
              • Convention
                • April 1660: First meeting of the Convention Parliament
                  • May: The Declaration of Breda is read in Parliament
                    • 5 May: Parliamentary resolutions on favour of Gment by King, Lords and Commons
                      • 29 May: Charles I returns to London, the Monarchy is restored
              • 26 Dec 1659: Rump begins sitting again
                • Jan 1660: Monck crosses the border into England. The Rump purges the army
                  • Feb: Monck's arrival is preceded by demonstrationand petitions in favour of free elections or the readmission of purged MPs
                    • 21 Feb: Monck forces the Rump to readmit MPs purged by Pride
                      • March: Rump dissolves itself
            • Oct 1659: Committee of Safety begins to meet, Monck, the leader of the Army in Scotland, refuses to approve it and declares support for the Rump
              • November: Lambert leaves London with an Army to march against Monck, CoS discusses a new constitution
                • December: The Portsmouth Garrison, Navy and Irish Army support the Rump
                  • 23 Dec: General Council of Officers dissolves itself
          • May 1659: Fleetwood apointed C in C of the army. Rump decrees that they should approve all officer appointments
            • July-Aug: Booth's Rising in Cheshire is crushed by Lambert's Army
              • September: JO's petition for godly reform is condemned by Parliament
                • Oct: Army Officers petition in protest. Parliament expels Lambert, Desborough and other officers
                  • 13 Oct: The Army forcibly dissolves the Rump, replacing it with a Committee of Safety
        • Sept 1658: Richard Cromwell is instated LP
          • Jan 1659: First  meeting of the Third Protectorate Parliament
            • April: meetings of GCO. Petition for payment of arrears- Parliament forbids Army Council meetings
              • Rendez-vous of soldiers in and around London forces RC to dissolve Parliament
                • May 1659: Army Council recalls the Rump
    • England 1661-7
      • Charles II: Character and Court
        • Restored Royal tradition eg touching of the King's evil
        • didn't trust anybody- made decisions with an inner circle of councillors
          • very pessimistic
          • permanent fear of betrayal/manipulation (eg from Henrietta Maria)
          • willing to discard councillors (eg Clarendon)
            • advisers had to make sure any policy was 'parliament proof'
          • policy of 'divide and rule'
        • presence of Catholics at court
        • very little actual vision: his main goal was 'not to go on his travels again'. Wouldn't push any agenda beyond political expediency
        • decadent and scandalous court
          • CII had several mistresses and illegitemate children
      • Domestic Policy
        • act of indemnity
        • abolished most of NMA
          • restricted CII's standing Army to 'guards and garissons' of 10 000
        • 1661 Cavalier Parliament
          • left in place many 1641 reforms including feudal rights
          • right to choose advisors/ command militia
          • no prerogative courts
          • temporary Licensing  Act and Act against tumultuous petiitioning
        • replaced Triennial Act with a weaker version
      • Religious Policy
        • CII wanted religious toleration but wouldn't push for it
        • restored bishops to the Lords and returned Church courts
        • Worcester House declaration: made important concessions for puritans  (such as making the wearing of the Surplice optional)
        • parliament: made many 'revenge acts' of legislation against puritans and sects
          • Corporation Bill: all government officials had to take Oaths of Allegiance, Supremacy and take communion in Anglican church
          • Act of Uniformity 1662 to make sure Parish Clergy and Schoolmasters were in agreement wth the prayer book
          • 1670 Conventicle Act
      • Foreign Policy
        • wanted a rapprochement with France
        • failure of Dutch War (Medway Crisis 1667)
      • Economic Policy
        • the convention calculated that CII would need £120 000 /yr and pledged to grant him that much in taxation
          • but that amount was actually only raised in later yrs

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