The Respiratory System 

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  • The Respiratory System
    • aerobic respiration: (needs oxygen) glucose +   oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water (+energy released)
      • C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O
    • anaerobic respiration:
      • in animals (only if there is a insufficient  supply of oxygen): glucose -> lactic acid (+energy released)
      • in plants: glucose -> ethanol+ carbon dioxide (+energy released)
    • process of respiration produces ATP which provides energy for cells.
      • intercostal muscles contract, moving ribs upwards + outwards
      • diaphragm contracts+ moves down
      • volume inside chest increases, pressure decreases
      • causing air to rush into the lungs
      • intercostal muscles relax, moving ribs downwards + inwards
      • diaphragm relaxes+ moves up
      • volume inside chest decreases+ pressure incrases
      • causing air to rush out of lungs
    • ALVEOLI - surrounded by network of capillaries
      • large surface area for diffusion, blood can receive more oxygen
      • rich blood supply- to maintain a steep concentration gradient between alveoli and the blood
      • fluids / moist surface to help diffuse gases and increase diffusion rate
      • thin walls - short diffusion distance
      • mucus - traps particles of bacteria or dirt that we breath in
      • cilia -tiny hair-like structure which are on cells. they move backwards and forwards, moving the mucus and trapped particles towards the mouth
      • cilia destroyed so mucus is not swept away from lungs so air passages become blocked, irritating the lining of the airways so cells are stimulated to make more mucus


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