The Rate of Heat Transfer

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  • The Rate of Heat Transfer
    • Bigger the temperature difference between an object and its surroundings the faster the rate at which energy is transferred by heating
    • What affects the rate of energy transfer
      • Surface area and volume of the object
      • The material from which the object is made
      • What type of surface is in contact with the object
    • A fridge has cooling fins to increase heat loss from pipes
    • A vacuum flask is designed to reduce heat transfer to or from the liquid inside
    • How humans and animals cope with cold temperatures
      • In cold conditions blood is diverted away from vessels in the skin surface to reduce heat loss by radiation
      • Hairs on skin surface stand up which trap a layer of air next to skin helping to insulate body
      • Animals have thick fur and a thick layer of fat under skin for insulation
      • A large rounded body gives small surface area compared to volume - reduces heat loss by radiation
      • Small ears reduce heat loss
    • How humans and animals cope with hot temperatures
      • In hot conditions more blood flows through vessels in skin's surface to increase heat loss by radiation
      • Sweat removes heat from skin by evaporation
      • Large ears act as radiators to help lose heat

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