The Progressive Presidents

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  • The Progressive Presidents
    • THEODORE ROOSEVELT
      • DOMESTIC POLICY
        • BIG BUSINESS - TR believed the govt had a right to regulate big business to protect the welfare of society. The Sherman Anti-Trust Policy 1890 blocked the creation of the Northern Securities Company, which would have been a monopoly. TR wanted to ensure big businesses are paying taxes and not exploiting the system.
        • RAILROADS - Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) informed the administration about abuses within the industry. The Elkins Act 1903 ended comapnies granting shipping rebates, but the Act was ineffective. The Hepburn Act 1906 allowed for tighter regulation. It was the first time the President appealed to the people, using the press to do so.
        • SQUARE DEAL - This became the name of TR's domestic policy (he was the first to name his DP). Thie name meant everyone gained fairly from an agreement and referred to a strike in Pennsylvania in 1902 which left the country facing a coal shortage.
        • CONSERVATION - TR was the first US President to focus on conservation. The US Forest Service was established. 5 National Parks were to be created. The 1906 Antiquities Act proclaimed 18 new US National Monuments and 51 wildlife refuges.
        • PANIC OF 1907 (KNICKERBOCKER CRISIS) - NY Stock Exchange fell 50% leading to many state and local banks declaring bankruptcy. J.P.Morgan pledged large sums of his own money and convinced others to do the same. Many then believed TR'S "trust busting" was mainly symbolic.
      • FOREIGN POLICY
        • TR wanted to increase the influence and prestige of the US on the world stage & make the country a global power. He believed the exploration of US values & ideals would have an ennobling effect on the world.
        • BIG STICK DIPLOMACY - "speak softly and carry a big stick, you will go far" meaning mediated negotiation would be supported by the threat of a powerful military.
        • PHILIPPINES - American had control of the island nation. TR appointed William Howard Taft as the first civilian governor of the islands in 1901. The Taft administration negotiated with Congress for a bill that included a governor general, independent judiciary, and a legislative assembly.
        • TR's COROLLARY- The Monroe Doctrine (1823) stated the USA would not accept European intervention in the Americas. TR took this further to say he had a right to exercise military force in Latin American countries to keep European countries out.
        • PANAMA CANAL - In 1901, America negotiated the construction of an American-controlled canal with Britain. It was to make trade easier. TR visited Panama in 1906 becoming the first US President to leave the country during his term of office.
        • GREAT WHITE FLEET - Consisting of 16 battleships with the hulls of the ships painted white, hence the name. From 16.12.1907 - 22.02.1909, the fleet toured the world to gain experience, drum up domestic support, show off, and impress other countries.
    • WOODROW WILSON
      • DOMESTIC POLICY
        • TARIFF & BANKING REFORM - WW was intent on expanding economic opportunity for people at the bottom of society and eliminating special privileges of the rich. The Underwood-Simmons Act 1913 and Federal Reserve Act were used to help achieve this.
        • ANTI-TRUST/PRO-WORKER - The Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1914 complimented the new Federal Trade Commission law. This created a new govt board empowered to investigate and publicise corrupt, unfair, or anti-competitive business practises. The Adamson Act 1918 established the 8-hour work day.
        • AFRICAN AMERICAN REFORM - WW appealed to African Americans during the election due to his New Freedom platform that promised social justice and opportunity for all Americans. However, in office, he claimed segregation reduced friction, segregated the federal dept (post office, treasury dept). He believed they could be equal, but separate which was consistent with his Southern background.
      • FOREIGN POLICY
        • FEDERAL WARTIME AUTHORITY - America only joined the war in 1917 after the sinking of the Lusitania (a British ship that was torpedoed on 07.05.1915 killing 128 Americans) and the Zimmermann Telegram (proposed an alliance between Mexico & Germany if the US joined the war.
          • - Liberty loans = a war bond sold to the Allies to raise finance. -War Industries Board 1917 = increased production by 20%.           -Herbert Hoover as Food Administrator = Meatless Mondays, Wheatless Wednesdays-Railways nationalised. -Nearly 4 million men drafted.        -Weapons provided by Britain and France for the 2 million sent to Europe
        • AMERICAN TROOPS - 400,000 African Americans served in WW1, 200,000 were sent overseas. Regiments were segregated. US lost 116,000 people to the war with 53,000 being killed in action. The rest died from diseases & accidents.
        • WILSON'S 14 POINTS - They were introduced to Congress on 08.01.1918. In December 1918, WW went to France marking the first time a President in office had gone to Europe. Huge crowds cheered him on and he hoped that if he got his message to ordinary people, they would force their leaders to listen.
        • OPPOSITION TO THE 14 POINTS - There was both opposition at home and abroad. The Reservationists believed the League of Nations would compromise American independence and the Irreconcilable opposed to any involvement of the US in world affairs. Most Democrats support WW. WW suffered a stroke in Sept 1919 and was secluded for the rest of his presidency, but he still issued his orders via his wife and he refused to compromise on the LoN. America never joined the LoN.
          • The failure of the LoN was a devastating failure to WW's almost superhuman efforts for world peace based upon international co-operation and the peaceful solution of international disputes.

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