The Periodic Table

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  • The Periodic Table
    • The Periodic Table
      • metalloids are after transition metals (B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te)
      • Metallic Properties
        • metallic structure is regular lattice of cations and sea of delocalised electrons
        • elements on the left are metals as they have lower ionisation energies
        • Large atomic radii, low ionisation energy, less exothermic electron affinity, low electronegativity
      • Electron Configurations
        • group number  = valence electrons
        • period number = number of main energy levels
        • s-block = group 1 and 2. p-block = groups 13-18. d-block = transition metals
    • Physical Properties
      • Atomic Radius
        • Half the internuclear distance of a molecules of an element
        • increases down the group as more orbitals
        • Decreases across period as charge increases
      • Ionic Radius
        • ionic radius of positive ions is smaller and ionic radius of negative ions is larger
          • less electron electron repulsion in cations
          • More electron electron repulsion in anions
        • the greater the charge the smaller / bigger the radius
      • First Ionisation Energy
        • decreases down the group as atomic radii increases
        • increases across a period because nuclear charge increases
      • First Electron Affinity
        • Exothermic for most elements
          • more exothermic across the period due to increase charge and decrease in atomic radius
        • decreases down the group because radius increases
      • Electronegativity
        • Decreases down a group as atomic radii increase
        • Increases across a period as increased radius is smaller
      • Group 1
        • Alkali metals
        • Highly reactive, soft, low melting point
        • melting point decreases down the group as ions get larger
        • Reactions more vigorous down the group
        • React rapidly with oxygen and tarnish in air
        • Form basic, soluble oxides
        • React with water to form a metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas
      • Group 17
        • Halogens
        • Diatomic molecules
        • Melting point increases down the group
          • masses increase and London forces get stronger
        • Reactivity decreases down the group
          • decrease in electron affinity
        • React with alkali metals to form salts
          • Salts usually white or colourless
            • chloride, bromides and iodides soluble in water to form colourless neutral solutions
      • Oxides of Period 2 and 3
        • metallic oxides are basic, non-metallic oxides are acidic
          • Aluminium oxide is amphoteric
        • Magnesium oxide is not very soluble as it have high charges on the ions
        • NO and N2O are neutral
          • NO can be oxidised in the atmosphere to NO2 which can react with water to produce nitric acid


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