Causes of the Cold War

  • Created by: Georgia
  • Created on: 19-01-18 17:03
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  • Causes of the development of the Cold War in the 40s
    • Ideologies
      • Capitalism
        • USA based on 2 ideas:
          • Democracy
          • Capitalism
        • Property and business owned by privet individuals and companies
        • US was the world's richest country
          • Still has extreme poverty
        • Most Americans were very passionate about Capitalism
          • This meant that even pre-Cold War there were serious tensions between the two superpowers
      • Communism
        • USSR was a one party, Communist state
        • Many people in the USSR were bitterly opposed to Capitalism
          • This meant that even pre-Cold War there were serious tensions between the two superpowers
        • For the many not the few
        • Everything was very censored and tightly controlled
      • Can't have been the main reason for The Cold War because the two countries had different ideologies 0 years before
      • Made the West feel worried that communism would take over
    • Conferences
      • Yalta
        • February 1945
        • Stalin and the others agreed to most things
        • Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill
        • Agreements
          • Stalin agreed to enter the war with Japan
          • They agreed Germany would be divided into 4 zones
          • They agreed to punish GErmany for Genocide
          • Countries that were freed from German control would be allowed to hold free elctions
          • All agreed to join the UN
          • They all agreed Eastern Europe would be considered a "soviet sphere of influence"
        • Disagreements
          • Poland
            • Stalin wanted the border of the USSR to move into Poland
            • Churchill disagreed w/ Stalin's plans but knew there was nothing he could do
            • Roosevelt disagreed w/ Stalin but Churchill convinced him to accept it
              • As long as Stalin didn't interfere w/ Greece
      • Potsdam
        • May 1945
        • Stalin, Churchill/Attlee and Truman
        • Things that had changed since Yalta
          • Yalta
            • February 1945
            • Stalin and the others agreed to most things
            • Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill
            • Agreements
              • Stalin agreed to enter the war with Japan
              • They agreed Germany would be divided into 4 zones
              • They agreed to punish GErmany for Genocide
              • Countries that were freed from German control would be allowed to hold free elctions
              • All agreed to join the UN
              • They all agreed Eastern Europe would be considered a "soviet sphere of influence"
            • Disagreements
              • Poland
                • Stalin wanted the border of the USSR to move into Poland
                • Churchill disagreed w/ Stalin's plans but knew there was nothing he could do
                • Roosevelt disagreed w/ Stalin but Churchill convinced him to accept it
                  • As long as Stalin didn't interfere w/ Greece
          • America had a new president
          • Stalin's armies were occupying most of Eastern Euproe
          • USA had developed the atomic bomb
        • Disagreements
          • Stalin wanted Germany to pay compensation
            • The other 2 said no because they were worried it would cause WW3
          • They disagreed over Soviet Policies in Europe
            • Truman saw Stalin's advances in Eastern Europe as evidence that Stalin was trying to build up a soviet empire
    • The A-Bomb
      • Developed in secret by the USA
        • Created further tensions and stalin felt this showed a distrust
      • First successful test took place on the 16th of July 1945
      • Stalin had spies so he knew the USA were developing the bomb
      • 6th and 9th of August 1945 USA dropped the bomb on Japan
    • The Iron Curtain
      • Phrase coined by Churchill on 5th March 1946 in a speech to the USA
      • The name for the border between the East and the West
        • Metaphor for Stalin's sphere of influence
      • In the later 40s Stalin/Communism spread to 7 different Eastern European countries
      • Made the West feel worried that communism would take over
      • In October 1947 Stalin set up Cominform
        • Shows how Stalin was was tightening his control over the eastern world
        • Really worried the WEst
        • The West were alarmed
          • Truman saw this as a spread of Communism while Stalin saw it as security
    • American Policies
      • Truman Doctrine
        • March 1947
        • Introduced by Turman
        • The name given to USA's attitude to world politics
        • Meant the USA was prepared to send money, equipment and advice to any country threatened by COmmunism
        • Aim was to stop the spread of Communism
          • Known as Containment
      • Marshal Plan
        • George Marshal went to assess the economic state of the UK in 1947
        • European countries owed $11.5 bil to the USA
          • in 1947 Britain has to turn all electricity off for a certain period every day because of shortages
        • Marshal suggested that $17bil of aid be given to Europe
        • In December 1947 it was refused by congress
          • In 1948, after communists took over Czechoslovakia the plan was accepted
        • Stalin's Reaction
          • View it with suspicion
          • Forbade any of his European countries from apply for Marshal Aid
          • Thoughts that it would weaken his control over Eastern Europe
          • Felt USA was trying to control as many countries as possible to make them dependant on $s
    • Greece + Turkey
      • Greece
        • After Nazis driven out 2 groups emerged
          • Communists
          • Monarchists
        • in 1945 British troops went to support the Monarchists
          • King returned to power
        • 1946 a Civil War broke out
        • UK had to withdraw in Febuary 1947
      • Stalin had promised to leave them alone
      • Turkey
        • Stalin tried to gain influence here
          • Thought it would gain him access to the Med Sea
        • Truman worried USSR influence here would allow Stalin to spread to the Middle East
          • Middle East was important because of oil reserves

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