The origins of parliament - King Henry III and his barons

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  • Created on: 09-12-20 20:54
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  • King Henry III and his barons
    • Problems
      • The Pope
        • Henry III was a very pious king which meant he had a close relationship with the Pope Innocent IV. The Pope tried to use Henry to fight wars in Sicily.
        • Henry was meant to pay the Pope money to fight these wars, when he didn't pay,the new Pope Alexander IV   excommunicate the king.
        • The Pope also wanted Henry's brother Richard to became Holy Roman Emperor, which was an important job. This made Henry feel pressured into helping pay the Pope's war.
      • The French
        • Henry's father, king John had lost lots of land in France so Henry had to raise money to fund the war to get them back
        • He was unsuccessful at first but then he sent his brother in law, the powerful and aristocratic Simon de Montfort , who won back the land in Gascony and controlled the area for Henry
        • Henry was told Simon de Montfort was being too harsh to the french people so he sent his son Edward to keep control.
      • The Barons
        • By 1254 Henry's relationship with the barons had deteriorated - they were angry about his various schemes
        • They were angry that Henry's family were given jobs in the English courts and the Italian clergy were given top jobs in the church.
        • Henry's tax increases to pay the Pope made the barons angry as they were the ones who had to pay.
    • The Provisions of Oxford 1258
      • Due to the issues between the barons and the king, Simon de Montfort led the barons to call a Great Council meeting in 1258.
      • Here, king Henry had to agree to the Provisions of Oxford.
      • The barons refused to fund the payment towards the Pope's wars in Sicily. The Provisions of Oxford gave the barons lots of power.
      • The barons could make decisions without the king's approval but the king could not make decisions without the Great Council's approval.
      • The Provision of Oxford was extended to the Provisions of Westminster. This formed a local government and gave more power to the less wealthy and powerful.
      • This angered the older barons who felt reformers were getting in the way of their local interests.
      • Some of the younger barons were angered by the Provision as ther weren't elected to the council and lost their influence.
      • The baron became divided


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