The Oceans

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  • The Oceans
    • entropy and enthalpy
      • entropy, S, - randomness of a system
    • sparingly soluble substance is in equilibrium
      • solubility product, Ksp
    • the greenhouse effect
      • visible radiation rapidly penetrate the atmosphere and warms the Earth
      • invisible infrared radiation is emitted by the Earth and cools it down
        • some of this infrared radiation is trapped by the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which act as a blanket, keeping the heat in
    • buffer solutions resist changes in pH when small amounts of acid or alkali added
    • acid-base chemistry
      • acid-base pair: conjugate acids/bases
      • pH = -log[H+], [H+] = 10^-pH
      • Bronsted-Lowry definitions: acid is an H+ donor, base is an H+ acceptor
        • strong acids and weak acids
          • pH of weak acids
          • acid dissociation constant
          • pH of strong acids
            • ionisation product of water
              • pH of strong alkalis
    • dissolving
      • ionic substances - energy supplied to overcome electrical attraction between oppositely charged ions in the lattice
      • intermolecular bonds
        • ionic bonds
          • ion-dipole bonds
            • enthalpy change of solution
      • ionic bonds
        • ion-dipole bonds
          • enthalpy change of solution

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