The Nazi police state

  • Created by: holly6901
  • Created on: 30-04-19 17:50
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  • The Nazi police state
    • The maintenance of the police state
      • The Nazis created 'Gleischaltung' through repression (control by force).This means that the Nazi regime combined force and fear to achieve conformity (obedience).
      • Heinrich Himmler was in charge of the Nazi’s tools for repression, the Gestapo, ** and SD
        • Himmler enthusiastically supported the idea of Aryan superiority and the inferiority of the untermenschen (sub-humans).As Himmler was in charge of police and security services, he could act how he wanted to and not fear legal punishment.
        • .Himmler was one of Hitler’s closest colleagues. His career in the Nazi Party began when he led the ** in 1929.
      • As the Nazis controlled the legal system, they had no opposition.
        • The Nazis got rid of trials by jury and instead all decisions rested with the judge alone.
        • It was compulsory for all judges to join the National Socialist League for the Maintenance of the Law.All judges had to rule in the Nazis favour.
    • The Gestapo was Hitler’s secret police service, set up by Hermann Goering in 1933 and led by Reynhard Heydrich.
      • The Gestapo was a small unit of 50,000 police men who relied on informers to identify opponents.
      • They spied on German citizens and prosecuted people who spoke against the Nazi regime.
        • Punishment for such a crime was torture or being sent to a concentration camp.
    • The ** was Hitler’s Protection Squad (bodyguards).It was set up in 1925. Heinrich Himmler led it.
      • The ** wore black uniforms.The ** were in charge of Germany’s police force.The ** ran the concentration camps.
    • The SD were Hitler’s Security Service.It was set up by Heinrich Himmler in 1931.
      • Reynhard Heydrich led the SD.The SD spied on Nazi opposition in Germany and in other countries.
    • The success of repression
      • Nazi tools for repression (control by force) were very successful..
        • The German population thought the Gestapo and ** were everywhere.
        • This widespread fear meant that the German people did not oppose the Nazi regime
      • As the Gestapo had so many informants (people giving information), there was no dissent (people expressing beliefs different to the common beliefs).
        • Everyone was careful about what they said about the Nazis in fear that they would be heard and reported.
      • Many German citizens were encouraged to spy.
        • While some were fervent (passionate) Nazi supporters, others used the opportunity for their personal agendas (plans).
        • Spying could help solve a personal vendetta (where the family of a murdered person seeks revenge on the murderer or the murderer's family).
      • While repression (control by force) and propaganda (information designed to influence people) worked together to create gleischaltung, repression (control by force) was more important.
    • Concentration camps and the law
      • Opponents sent to the camps included political prisoners, ‘undesirables’ such as prostitutes or homosexuals, and ethnic minorities such as the Jews or gypsies
        • .The camps were isolated so no one could see the bad things that happened in them.
        • Mostly, the prisoners were forced to do hard labour and were ill-treated.
      • The Nazis got rid of trials by jury and instead all decisions rested with the judge alone
        • .It was compulsory for all judges to join the National Socialist League for the Maintenance of the Law.
        • All judges had to rule in favour of the Nazis
    • Nazis and religion
      • Hitler hoped to control Christian churches and then eventually overthrow them with his own Nazi, pagan religion
        • .Hitler needed to address both Protestant and Catholic churches
        • .Because 45 million Germans were Protestant, churches would be a great way to spread the Nazi message and keep control over the people.
      • To do this, the Nazis founded the Reich Church in 1933
        • .Under the leadership of Ludwig Müller, 2,000 Protestant Churches were part of the Reich Church.
        • The unity of the Reich Church and Nazis is seen in how they said: ‘The Swastika on our chests and the Cross in our hearts’.
      • Religious opposition
        • The Confessional Church was founded in 1934 to oppose the Reich Church
          • .Led by Martin Niemöller, the Confessional Church was made up by 6,000 churches.
        • Catholic loyalty was split between Hitler and the Pope.
          • German Catholics would send their children to Catholic youth organisations, challenging the authority of the Nazi Party Youth movement.
        • A concordat was signed in 1933 but Hitler immediately broke it. The pope issued a statement in 1937 about the issue.

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