Crusades 2

  • Created by: hctisg
  • Created on: 22-09-17 18:29
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  • The Muslims and Seljuks
    • Rise of the Seljuks
      • The Abbasids reunited the nomadic Seljuks. Arabs began to rely on the Seljuks for protection. The Seljuks converted to Sunni Islam which gained favour of most of the Islamic world.
        • Seljuks came to the aid of of the Muslim Caliph who was under pressure from other groups. The Caliph gave the Seljuks the title of 'Defenders of Faith'
      • 1063AD Togruhl Beg died and was succeeded by his nephew, Alp Arslan who fought for Syria against the Fatimids, Armenians, and Byzantines. in 1071 Byzantines pushed Seljuk's out of Armenia with the help of Norman Allies. Later that year there was a Byzantine loss at Manzikert. in 1072 Alp Arslan died and 20 years later the Seljuk's split.
      • The Seljuk Sultan, Malik Shah died. This lead to the division of his sons. This lead to the crusaders taking Palestine.
        • Despite this they still managed to restore power in Asia Minor in the 1100s.
        • The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was most powerful in the 12th Century.
      • Turkish nomads from Turkmenistan entered the Abbasid Caliphate in 950AD and gradually converted them to Sunni. In 1030AD they began gaining more power and controlled Persia. Their capitol was Isfahan and they spoke Persian. Togruhl Beg conquered Iraq.
    • Abbasid Caliphate
      • The Abbasids ruled North and West Africa between 750-1000AD. the Abbasids began to weaken and North Africa broke away forming an independent Kingdoms under the Fatimid.
        • Governors of each province began losing control of each Caliph.
        • The First Crusade and the taking over of Jerusalem and much of Israel and Lebanon mostly due to weakening Abbasid power.
        • In 1258, the Abbasid Caliphate ended.
      • 750AD Umayyed Caliphs replaced by Abbasid Caliphs. All but one of the Umayyed nobles were murdered. The capital was moved from Damascus to Baghdad.
      • The one surviving Umayyed Caliph fled to Spain away from the Abbasids and founded the Umayyed Caliphate of Spain.
    • Fatimid Caliphate
      • Started declining in 1100 when they lost Syria and the Arabian peninsula to the Emirs. In 1098, the Fatimids lost Israel. In 1187 the last Fatimid ruler died and Egypt became Sunni again.
      • 908AD a new family by the name of Fatimids claimed to be descended from Mohammed's daughter- Fatima.
        • They began as leaders of the Yemen and Arabian Peninsula. They sent troops to North Africa to take over. They built Cairo as their own capitol and were the most powerful in the 11th Century.
    • Background to Islam
      • Umor surpassed Abu Bakr and lead raids into Roman and Sassinid empires.
      • Ali was the third Caliph and he lead raids into Egypt and north Africa.
      • After Mohammed's death his father in-law Abu Bakr took over as Caliph and wanted to capture the Arabian peninsula.
      • After Mohammed's death there was a split between the Muslim's over who should be the rightful successor to Mohammed
        • The Shi'ia branch of Islam believed that Mohammed's son-in-law Ali (third Caliph) was the rightful successor to Mohammed. Ali was married to Mohammed's daughter Fatima.
        • The Sunni branch of Islam believed that Abu Bakr- Mohammed's father in law- was the rightful successor.
          • The Sunni's formed the Umayyed Caliphate. Damascus was the new capital
      • Muslims are the followers of the prophet Mohammed, after he died in 632AD Arab Tribes formed a new religion- Islam.

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