the media and globalisation

  • Created by: laura_s
  • Created on: 19-12-17 16:27
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  • The media and globalisation
    • globalisation: where social and economic activity spans many nations to have little regard for national borders
      • imperialism:  a country's ability to impose power and influence onto other countries
      • Crothers: globalisation has been promoted because if economic, cultural and political factors
        • 1. new relationships created that go beyond national borders
        • 2. transnational companies have power over the world with 24hour production and advanced tech
        • 3. events all over the world can be made public with media access
    • Bell: social media like twitter provide platforms for politicians, journalists and leaders to inform and speak
    • ownership of the worlds media has become concentrated
      • McChesney (2002): fewer than 10 media corps own most of the different types of media
    • culture
      • Scott & Marshall (2009): culture comes from what society is taught, it's not biologically transmitted
        • values: beliefs and goals that members of a society regard as important
        • norms: how society expects their members to act
      • popular culture: mass media. often seen to be manufactured for mass consumption
        • Globalisation of popular culture: large sections of the world's population engages with the same culture, leading to homogenisation of culture
          • homogenisation of culture: a reduction of the world's diversity, where people abandon their folk cultures for mass produced popular culture
      • high culture: refers to what the elite in society regard as the highest intellectual achievement.widely accessible
    • postmodernist view
      • culture
        • Scott & Marshall (2009): culture comes from what society is taught, it's not biologically transmitted
          • values: beliefs and goals that members of a society regard as important
          • norms: how society expects their members to act
        • popular culture: mass media. often seen to be manufactured for mass consumption
          • Globalisation of popular culture: large sections of the world's population engages with the same culture, leading to homogenisation of culture
            • homogenisation of culture: a reduction of the world's diversity, where people abandon their folk cultures for mass produced popular culture
        • high culture: refers to what the elite in society regard as the highest intellectual achievement.widely accessible
      • ... on the effects of globalisation on popular culture - mass media has played a huge role in societies, change from modern to post-modern - media expansion has now led to media saturation
      • ... on mass media and identity: - media has changed consumption patterns - Strinati (1995): high and popular culture has become blurred which has made it easier for people to adapt and change their identity
      • ... on the relativity of knowledge: - a media saturated society leads to a more media-literate audience that is aware of there being no one absolute truth - all views hold some value and this leads to a more critical and participatory culture
      • ... on participatory culture: - Henry Jenkins (2008): the public have more s.media to use and this leads to a democratic culture - people can actively get involved instead of passively accepting ideas
      • ... on popular protest: - Murphy (2013): studied twitter and found it to be a good political platform to voice opinions (Spencer Thomas agreed) - demonstrated by the Burmese anti-gov protests in 2007 which garnered a lot of attention
      • ... on the globalisation effect on local cultures:- Thompson (1995) media has become so intense that users are citizens of the world and locally - Cohen & Kennedy argue that people don't usually abandon their traditional views just because of media, they can simply appreciate other cultures from it
      • postmodernists usually see the globalisation of media as beneficial as it is diffusing different cultures around the world. they see it as cultural hybridity, not homogenisation
      • CRITIQUES: - exaggerate the degree of social change associated with global media - evidence suggests many people have other influences over their life more strongly than media - overestimate the amount of media consumption that exists (4/10 65+ in UK have no access to internet
    • cultural imperialistic view
      • influenced by exists Frankfurt school
      • AGAINST popular culture and globalisation. popular culture is an idealogical product aimed at distracting people from he exploitation they face
        • Marcuse: this conformity is a way of companies getting audiences to subscribe to 3 ways of thinking 1) commodity fetishism 2) false needs 3) conspicuous consumption
          • 1) products of popular culture enhance lives, e.g.: phones  2) ideas that media give off lead to people thinking they need certain products to enhance their quality of life 3) the way in which some products are portrayed make people think they need them to be on top of their game
      • Adorno and Marcuse: the role of the mass media is to indoctrinate consumers into a capitalist ideology to produce a homogenised culture that supports capitalist values, thus producing false consciousness
        • false consciousness: people's failure to look at the world in a critical way
      • globalisation as americanisation
        • Flew: globalisation is a misnomer for americanisation. the powerful cultural force is imposing on other countries by exposing its way of life
        • McChesney: Americanisation is as a result of few American transnational companies achieving monopolistic control in media
        • effects of americanisation across the world: - marginalisation and destruction of diverse cultures - mass advertising of western cultures leads to people adopting it - Kellner (1999) global media is all the same and this erases individuality - Putnam: social media is replacing physical communities for online ones
      • CRITIQUES: - CI underestimate the strength of local, diverse cultures who will not abandon their lifestyles - Held et al (2003): CI makes the mistake of thinking that the flow of culture only goes from west to east (music evidence)
      • conclue that USA is involved in cultural imperialism. predicted that this will lead to disaster

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