The Long Reformation Catholic I - Catholic Reformation or Counter-Reformation?

  • Created by: Alasdair
  • Created on: 23-05-18 17:12
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  • The Long Reformation Catholic I - Catholic Reformation or Counter-Reformation? (According to Anne Gerritsen, Kevin Gould and Peter Marshall)
    • Worries of Catholic Church
      • Deeply troubled by extent of Protestant successes in first half of C16th
      • By around 1550, Protestantism looked unstoppable
        • seemingly victorious in Germany, Scandinavia and England
        • Made serious inroads into France and Netherlands
    • By end of C16th and early C17th
      • Catholic Church was resurgent
      • Headed by revitalised papacy
      • Its doctrine and practices redefined and its hierarchy subordinate to Rome
      • Transformation was forged in extraordinary general council of Church and implemented by its champions
        • an invigorated episcopacy and new religious orders
      • Swaths of land and countless souls lost to Protestantism during early Reformation period were regained by pious, disciplined and militant Catholicism during C17th and C18th
        • New worlds were targeted by missionaries eager to export 'true faith' across the globe
    • According to O'Malley
      • Whether Catholic revival was direct response to Protestant expansion or instead culmination of centuries of internal reform is often debated
    • C19th German Lutheran historian, Leopold von Ranke
      • Popularised influential expression 'Counter Reformation' to express supposedly negative and reactionary character of Catholic policy in these years
    • Recent historiography has noted:
      • Calls for a reformatio ecclesiae (reformation of Church and in head and members) had been routine in late medieval period


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