The last year of peace

  • Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 20-05-20 10:40
View mindmap
  • The last years of peace
    • Unionisation
      • From 1906-14 Russia's workers were increasingly unionised.
        • Strikes occured sporadically from 1906-1911.
          • This increased significantly in the last years of peace with major waves of strikes between 1912-early 1914.
    • The Lena Goldfields
      • The Lena Goldfield mines were located in Siberia and controlled by the Lenzoloto Mining Company.
      • The causes of the strike
        • Workers had a series of long-term grievances which contributed to the strike.
          • While the Lenzoloto Mining Company provided their workers with some benefits, housing and food were often of extreemly low quality.
          • The working day was either 11 or 11 1/2 hours, depending on the season.
          • Serving rotten horsemeat in the canteen was the trigger for the strike.
        • Striking workers quickly drew up a list of demands, including:
          • -An 8 hour day
          • -Sick pay
          • -A 30% wage increase
          • -Paid overtime
          • -Better quailty food
          • -Respect from company officials
        • The Owners of the company refused to meet the worker's demands.
      • Massacre
        • The leaders of the miners were politically moderate.
          • They refused to use violence and repeatedly stated that they were willing to reach a compromise.
            • However, the mine's management asked the police and the army to break up the strike.
              • Initially, the police arrested the strike's leaders.
                • The miners responded with a protest march.
                  • The army reacted by opening fire on the unarmed miners, leading to 172 deaths and a similar number of injuries.
    • Aftermath of the Lena Goldfields massacre
      • Caused outrage.
        • The Russian press condemned the massacre, as did politicians including Octoberists and Kadets.
      • The strike didn't lead to a significant imporvement of conditions in the Lena Goldfields.
        • Unable to recruit enough Russian labour, the Lenzoloto Comapny employed workers from China and Korea.
      • Union Militancy
        • The massacre of April 1912 was a turning point in the Russian union movement.
          • From 1912-14 the union movement was more assertive and strikes increased.
            • In 1912, 750,000 workers were on strike.
              • Increased to 1,450,000 in 1914.
    • The nature of Tsarist government in 1914
      • By 1914 the exact nature of Tsarist government was controversial.
        • Octoberists such as Guchkov claimed that the Tsar was part of a constitutional government.
          • Socialists disagreed, arguing that Russia remained an autocracy.
      • Autocracy restored
        • There is evidence that autocracy was largely restored after 1905:
          • -The powers of the new Duma were minimal.
          • -Stolypin's state of emergancy allowed the Tsar to ignore individual rights.
      • Growing democracy?
        • However, there are also some indications that Russian government was democratising
          • First, the later Dumas were able to scrutinise the Tsar's government.
            • Scrutiny took the following forms:
              • -Members of the Duma had the right to question ministers and expose problems with the Tsar's government.
              • -Duma committees monitored key areas of government policy.
                • Eg, the Third Duma set up a military committee in 1907.
                  • The committee, chaired by Guchkov, examined military spending, leading to changes in policy in 1911.
          • Secondly, by 1914 Russia had a largely free press, which published criticism of the Tsar.
          • Thirdly, the emergance of independant trades unions and political parties led to the developement of civil society.
      • Partial autocracy?
        • Clearly, Russia remained largely autocratic.
        • Nonetheless, the Duma's power of scrutiny and the emergance of the free press meant that the Tsar had no longer had total freedom of action.


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Russia - 19th and 20th century resources »