The Increasing Scale and Pace of Economic Migration in an Interconnected World

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  • The Increasing Scale and Pace of Economic Migration in an Interconnecte-d World
    • Migration Facts
      • 750 million internal migrants lived around the world in 2013
      • Global urbanisation passed 50% in 2008
      • 250 million international migrants
      • In 2014, 14 million refugees were forced from their homes
      • By 2050, 75% of us will be city-dwellers
    • Causes of Rural-Urban Migration
      • Urban Pull Factors
        • Employment
        • TNCs offer a range of work opportunities with their companies or supply chain
        • Hope of promotion and advancement into professional roles
        • Better schooling and healthcare
      • Rural Push Factors
        • Poverty
        • Population growth means that there are not enough jobs
        • Land reforms
        • Agricultural modernisation reduces the need for rural labour
        • Resource scarcity
        • Conflict
      • "Shrinking World" Technology
        • Rural dwellers are gaining knowledge of the outside world and its opportunities
        • Successful migrants communicate useful information and advice
        • Transport improvements
    • The Three Types of Population Movement that have Led to the Growth of Global Hubs
      • Elite International Migrants
        • Highly skilled and socially influential individuals
        • Wealth derives from their profession or inherited assets
        • Elite migrants tend to have multiple homes
      • Low-waged International Migrants
        • Drawn to global  hubs
        • Legal and illegal immigrants working for low pay
      • Internal Migration
        • Main driver of city growth
    • Global Hubs
      • A settlement or region that has become a focal point for activities with global influence
        • Trade
        • Business
        • International governance
        • Education and research
      • Recognised for its influence rather than its population size
    • Costs and Benefits of Migration for Source Country
      • Costs
        • Loss of a generation schooled at the government's expense
        • Reduced economic growth as consumption falls
        • Increase in aged dependents
        • Closure of some university courses due to lack of interest
      • Benefits
        • Remittances can contribute to national earnings
        • Less public spending on housing and health
        • Migrants may return and bring new skills
        • Government spending costs are transferred to the host region
    • Costs and Benefits of Migration for Host Country
      • Costs
        • Social tensions arise if citizens of host country believe migration has caused a lack of jobs or affordable housing
        • Political parties changed policies to address public concerns on migration
        • Local shortages of primary school places
        • New markets can develop for ethnic food
      • Benefits
        • Fills skills shortages
        • Migrants are willing to do unpopular labouring work
        • Some migrants are entrepreneurs who establish new businesses
    • Interdependence
      • Areas become dependent on the economic benefit of migrants
      • The UK economy is dependent on Eastern European labour
      • Eastern Europe is dependent on migrant remittances
      • Social and political ties between two countries can be strengthened by migration
  • How to Sustain a Megacity
    • Environment-al Sustainability
      • Water pollution from untreated sewage
      • Air pollution from industry and exhausts
      • Smog
    • The Increasing Scale and Pace of Economic Migration in an Interconnecte-d World
      • Migration Facts
        • 750 million internal migrants lived around the world in 2013
        • Global urbanisation passed 50% in 2008
        • 250 million international migrants
        • In 2014, 14 million refugees were forced from their homes
        • By 2050, 75% of us will be city-dwellers
      • Causes of Rural-Urban Migration
        • Urban Pull Factors
          • Employment
          • TNCs offer a range of work opportunities with their companies or supply chain
          • Hope of promotion and advancement into professional roles
          • Better schooling and healthcare
        • Rural Push Factors
          • Poverty
          • Population growth means that there are not enough jobs
          • Land reforms
          • Agricultural modernisation reduces the need for rural labour
          • Resource scarcity
          • Conflict
        • "Shrinking World" Technology
          • Rural dwellers are gaining knowledge of the outside world and its opportunities
          • Successful migrants communicate useful information and advice
          • Transport improvements
      • The Three Types of Population Movement that have Led to the Growth of Global Hubs
        • Elite International Migrants
          • Highly skilled and socially influential individuals
          • Wealth derives from their profession or inherited assets
          • Elite migrants tend to have multiple homes
        • Low-waged International Migrants
          • Drawn to global  hubs
          • Legal and illegal immigrants working for low pay
        • Internal Migration
          • Main driver of city growth
      • Global Hubs
        • A settlement or region that has become a focal point for activities with global influence
          • Trade
          • Business
          • International governance
          • Education and research
        • Recognised for its influence rather than its population size
      • Costs and Benefits of Migration for Source Country
        • Costs
          • Loss of a generation schooled at the government's expense
          • Reduced economic growth as consumption falls
          • Increase in aged dependents
          • Closure of some university courses due to lack of interest
        • Benefits
          • Remittances can contribute to national earnings
          • Less public spending on housing and health
          • Migrants may return and bring new skills
          • Government spending costs are transferred to the host region
      • Costs and Benefits of Migration for Host Country
        • Costs
          • Social tensions arise if citizens of host country believe migration has caused a lack of jobs or affordable housing
          • Political parties changed policies to address public concerns on migration
          • Local shortages of primary school places
          • New markets can develop for ethnic food
        • Benefits
          • Fills skills shortages
          • Migrants are willing to do unpopular labouring work
          • Some migrants are entrepreneurs who establish new businesses
      • Interdependence
        • Areas become dependent on the economic benefit of migrants
        • The UK economy is dependent on Eastern European labour
        • Eastern Europe is dependent on migrant remittances
        • Social and political ties between two countries can be strengthened by migration
    • Social Sustainability
      • Provision of adequate urban housing, healthcare and education
      • Mass migration
      • Regulate the housing market to make affordable housing available for low-income groups
      • Employment

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