The importance of Conscription

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  • Created by: K4typ
  • Created on: 29-05-18 15:05
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  • The Importance of Conscription
    • Revolutionary 1792-1802
      • By 1790 3 quarters of a million men had been conscripted led to much larger armies than the rest of Europe
      • Mutual obligations between state  and people
        • people attracted to lifestyle
      • Jena-baptise Jourdan introduced the conscription law in 1798    
        • divided men between 20 and 25 into classes men selected from each class
      • Prussian System of calling on troops of feudal lords
      • Most states did not have conscription as they didnt want armed citizens
      • armies had been mostly used to resole internal problems
    • Napoleonic
      • The battle of borodino in Russia 1812 was a slogging match due to the size f forces prevented tactical brilliance 
      • Forces conscripted from around the empire
        • Quality of troops got worse
    • Austro-Prussian War
      • Austro-Prussian war victories by Prussia against Austria was more due to quick mobilisation 
      • Austria introduced conscription in 1867 the war ended 1866
      • Could argue lack of conscription contributed to defeat also more of a problem with organisation
    • WW1
      • expandable... used by British 1916
        • meant that British were unable to use independent unit based fighting where as German independent unit more effective
      • Conscription due to the increased impact of newspapers was accepted as a national duty
      • 1913 --> RU standing army of 1.3 Million
      • Overall increase in army sizes
      • German standing army in 1914 4,500,00
      • Allowed Russia to sustain warfare
      • 1916 the Military Service Act was passed. This imposed conscription on all single men aged between 18 and 41, but exempted the medically unfit, clergymen, teachers and certain classes of industrial worker.
      • entire war conscription raised 2.5 million men. UK
        • UK around six million men were mobilised,
          • 700,000 were killed
    • WW2
      • Switzerland used the milita model of conscription --> quick mobilisation   --> Nazi's reluctant to invade switzerland
      • Saw militarisation of the whole society and was used in the second world war 
      • Conscripts able to sustain complicated amphibious landings
    • American Civil War
      • 1.5 million union men 6% were conscripted  
      • 750,000 conf soldiers 12% were conscripted 
      • After the war and after 1865 the US did not maintain conscription 
      • expandable/ selective model takes a long time to establish
        • WW1
          • expandable... used by British 1916
            • meant that British were unable to use independent unit based fighting where as German independent unit more effective
          • Conscription due to the increased impact of newspapers was accepted as a national duty
          • 1913 --> RU standing army of 1.3 Million
          • Overall increase in army sizes
          • German standing army in 1914 4,500,00
          • Allowed Russia to sustain warfare
          • 1916 the Military Service Act was passed. This imposed conscription on all single men aged between 18 and 41, but exempted the medically unfit, clergymen, teachers and certain classes of industrial worker.
          • entire war conscription raised 2.5 million men. UK
            • UK around six million men were mobilised,
              • 700,000 were killed
    • Developments after 1870
      • Higher population density conscription had greater effect
      • greater communication between urban and rural areas conscription easier to enforce
      • more widespread conscription   --> less distinction between civilians and armed forces

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