The Nervous System

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  • The Human Nervous System
    • It is made up of different parts
      • Central Nervous System- in vertebrates it consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is connected by the rest of the body by sensory and motor neurons
      • Sensory Neurones- These carry information as electrical impulses from the receptors to the CNS
      • Motor Neurones- these carry electrical impulses from the CNS  to the effectors
      • effectors- all your muscles and glands which respond to nervous impulsus
    • receptors and effectors can form part of complex organs
      • receptors are the cells that detect stimuli
      • there are many different types of receptors such as taste receptors on the tongue and sound receptors in the ears
      • effectors respond to nervous impulses and bring about change
        • Muscles and glands are known as effectors- they respond in different ways. Muscles contract in response to a nervous impulse whereas glands secrete hormones.
    • synapses connect neurones
      • the connection between 2 neurones is called a synapse.
        • The nerve signal is transferred by chemicals which diffuse (move) across the gap. These chemicals then set off new electrical signal in the next neurone
    • reflexes help prevent injury
      • Reflexes are rapid and automatic responses to certain stimuli that don't involve the conscious part of the brain
      • example-if someone shines a bright light in your eye your pupils automatically get smaller
      • reflex arc

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