The Great Northern War- Foreign Policy

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  • The Great Northern War- Foreign Policy
    • Aims- Assess to the Baltic Sea, To claim back territory (Ingria & Karelia)
    • The Battle of Narva - 1700
      • Discipline
        • Russian troops began murdering thie hatred foreign officers, who surrendered to the Swedes
          • Priorities are not straight!
        • Preobazhensky and Semenovsky guards held their positions.
          • Peters new army was improving.
      • Training
        • Russians tried to flee, some drowning, some trampled to death
        • The new 27 new regiments lacked experience and training
        • Swedish Army = 10,0000 strong against 40,000 Russian Men.
      • Swedes Tactics
        • Charles attacked during a blizzard, catching Russians unprepared.
        • Excellent Tactics for Sweden, outnumbered and out performed Russa
      • Weapons and Equipment
        • A lack of supplies and munitions
      • Leadership
        • Day before battle, Peter left Narva with Golovin. He left his Russians under Du-Croy who wasn't even Russian service.
          • Peter wasn't expecting an immediate attacl. He had gone to get reinforcements and meet wit Augustus (Robert Massie)
        • General Gordon, Peters best general had died. LACKING LEADERSHIP
        • Russians were like a "herd of cattle". They surrendered under attack
        • 700 Swedes died compared to 8,000 Russian casualities
    • Battle of Poltava - 1709
      • Swedes Lacking
        • Charles Army- 33,000 with 11,000 due to join him from Riga with supplies
          • Sweden is reliant. A positive for Russia
        • War against Poland ruined Sweden. they ran out of ammunition and was left with 19,000 men at the end of Poltava
      • Peters Tactics
        • "Scorched Earth Policy"
          • One step infront of Swedish Tactics
        • Peter spread propaganda amongst the Cossacks accusing the Swedes of being heretics and that Mazeppa was aiming to return Ukraine to polish rule, not fighting for Cossack freedom
        • Skirmishes designed to harry the Swedes
          • Charles injured in one of Skirmishes. He couldn't command his army
        • Lewenhaupts troops attacked by Russians. Lost all supplies and artillery
      • Charles' Mistakes
        • Lewenhaupt was late joining Swedish army. Charles lost patience and marched south
        • Charles left 7000 men behind to guard Baltic against Russia
          • Swedes outnumbered
      • Charles' arrogance
        • Arrogant with his own army. He put Poland as a priority believed it would be a  "decisive" victory.
          • This allowed Peter to develop his fleet and army as Charles was preoccupied with Poland until 1708
        • Charles refused to listen to the advice of others about his army.
      • Allies
        • Charles unreliable alliances. He hoped for 50,000 reinforcements from Cossacks. Only 1,300 joined Swedes
        • Tatars wanted to ally with Charles, but overlords ordered them to stay neutral
          • Shows the significant uproar that Russia had on Sweden
      • Peters Reforms
        • Refitted his fleet at Tagenrog, strengthened his town in Azov.
          • Intimidated the Turks
        • Peters iron industry - at Poltava Russia fired 5 times as many rounds than Sweden
        • Peters 135,000 Army to 42,000 Swedes
        • Training manuals to train and discipline army
        • Reorganised army into smaller units- light infantry, combined calvary and light artillery
      • Weather
        • Severe weather caused loss to Swedish army
        • Extremely Harsh. Worse in four centuries


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