The Glorious Revolution

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  • The Glorious Revolution
    • Trigger Causes
      • The arrest, imprisonment and the trial of the 7 bishops.
        • James reissued the Declaration of Indulgence, which aimed to establish freedom of religion and announced that it's next parliament would enact it by law.
        • James announced that all Church of England pulpits had to announce this.
        • Archbishop Sancroft and 6 other bishops made a petition saying there would be no statement from the pulpit because its based on an illegal power.
      • Implications of the birth of James' son- 10th June 1688
        • He had a Catholic wife, Mary of Modena and she gave birth to a son.
        • Although the Tories were committed to the idea of a legitimate succession, it was James' constant use of the courts to his own ends and the birth of his son that provoked.
      • The motives of William of Orange
        • The birth of their Catholic son and the stories from Anne saying it was an illegitimate child.
        • William regarded the invasion of England as beneficial to Dutch strategic and economic in Europe.
        • The Dutch were under increasing pressure from Louis XIV's expansion of France's Northeastern border.
      • The Letter of the 'Immortal Seven'
        • At the end of June 1688 five Whigs and two Tories, who became known as the 'Immortal Seven' wrote to William.
        • The letetr invited him to invade England assuring him that the majority of the population were 'generally dissatisfied with the present conduct of the government, in relation to their religion, liberties and properties.'
    • William's invasion of England
      • Faced with the prospect of invasion, James sought to compromise with his opponents in England. However, it was too late, William landed in Torbay and Exeter and called a free parliament.
      • The Dutch republic supported William’s plan to invade England in a secret resolution.
      • 30th September: William issued a declaration of reasons for appearing in arms in the kingdom of England.
      • William didn’t state any intention of taking the throne, his initial aim was to intervene in English politics and remodel Parliament and the Privy Council to ensure England supported the Dutch republic against Louis XIV.
    • The Coronation Oath
      • Previous monarchs took the following coronation oath: 'Confirm to the people of England the laws and customs to them granted by the kings of England.'
      • William and Mary swore to a different oath: 'To govern the people of this kingdom of England, and the dominions thereunto belonging, according to the statutes in Parliament agreed on, and the laws and customs of the same'.
    • The 'Bill of Rights'
      • This document stated the following
        • No Catholic was to inherit the throne.
        • No monarch could marry a Catholic.
        • No monarch could establish ecclesiastical commissions
        • No monarch could have a standing army.
        • Suspending and dispensing powers of the monarch were declared unconstitutional.
        • Parliament had to consent to all taxation.

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