'The formation of the NAACP was the major turning point in the development of civil rights protest'

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  • Created on: 21-12-18 20:34
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  • 'The formation of the NAACP was the major turning point in the development of civil rights protest'
    • NAACP
      • Showed white support
        • Did little after 1963 due to socio-economic focus, integration was off-putting
      • Led marches
        • 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott shows effectiveness of local councils, fuelled the 1964 Civil Rights Act
      • Challenged discrimination in the courts
        • 1917 prevented residential segregation of AA
        • 1954 Brown vs Topeka Board of Education began integration of schools and overruled Plessy vs Ferguson
      • NAACP Youth Council 1958 organised Sit-Ins in 1960 to challenge segregation, inspired the SNCC
    • CORE
      • Challenged segregation on interstate transport
      • Introduced Freedom Rides in 1947
        • Led Kennedy to authorise the Interstate Commerce Commission and  the desegregation of interstate transport
      • Provoked mob-violence in Anniston and Birmingham
      • Led a campaign in Chicago to desegregate schools
    • SCLC
      • Led MLK to prominence
        • March on Washington 1963, fuelled 1964 Civil Rights Act and 1965 Voting Rights Act
        • 1963 Birmingham Campaign, catalysed change in general attitude and white sympathy
      • First demonstration in 1961 thwarted by Police Chief Laurie Pritchett
    • Nation of Islam
      • Led the Black Power movement
        • Radicalism and separatism
      • Led to Malcolm X
        • armed resistance and white hostility
      • Promoted African heritage and racial and cultural pride
        • Inspired ghetto dwellers because of emphasis on self-confidence and self-help
        • Significant as 1/3 lived below the poverty line, so this resonated with many AA
      • Fuelled the change in direction of the civil rights movement to socio-economic issues and violent protest
    • Individual leaders 1865-1909
      • Booker T. Washington
        • 1881 founded Tuskegee Institute to train AA teachers, increasing economic prosperity
        • 1901 funded National Business League to encourage AA economic enterprise
        • Stressed the importance of self-determination and hard work, which is reflected in the policies of the NOI, so was clearly influential
        • Advised presidents on racial issues
      • W. E. B. Du Bois
        • Created the NAACP
        • Led marches and campaigns
        • Cooperation with white reformers fuelled MLK's integrationist policies
        • 1905 Niagara Movement called for an end to segregation but was ineffective

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