Russia 1855-1964 WWI

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  • The First World War 1914-1918
    • Resulted from failure to solve the Eastern Question, detororation of relations with Austria-Hungary, obligation to support fellow slavs
    • 8 million casulties, 1.7 mill dead, 2.4 mill captured
    • N II incompetence as a war time leader led to him abdicating
    • Dec 1917 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
    • OPTIMISTS:
      • Necessary if autocracy in Russia was going to disappear forever
      • Military failure resulted in economic challenges for the home front leading to increasing social unrest
      • Authorities struggled to cope with the scale and degree required of military and industry, drastic change in govt needed to stop anarchy
      • Huge errors of judgement by the Tsar- personal control of the army, left capital, control went to his German wife and Rasputin
      • Resultant formation of Provisional Govt, a positive development and war caused their downfall
    • PESSIMISTS:
      • War not a turning point, tsars struggling for decades, not a sudden thing, N II always viewed as incompetent, only a matter of time
      • Worker opposition gathered momentum well before the war, wokring class consciousness had emerged with the legislation of political parties, growth of trade unions and Soviets
      • Emphasises the importance of the workers over time

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