The First Civil War 1642-46

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  • Created on: 07-02-20 16:54
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  • The First Civil War 1642-46
    • 1642
      • Charles was in a strong position at the war of the war.
        • He had support of most of the nobility and gentry.
        • He had many royalist generals who were professional soliders (who had fought in the Thirty Years War).
      • The first main battle of the war, Edgehill in Warwickshire, didn't give either side a clear victory.
        • However, it allowed Royalist forces to march south, hoping to take London.
          • They were held up at Turnham Green by a large group of volunteers who prevented the royalists from taking the capital.
    • 1643
      • Royalist forces were organised to make a three-pronged attack on London from the North, the Southwest and the West.
        • However, Parliament's control of the navy stopped this plan.
      • Naval bases in Hull, Plymouth and Gloucester gave strongholds for Parliamentary forces.
        • This deterred royalist commanders from moving against London.
    • 1644
      • Parliament's control of more money and resources began to turn the war in it's favour.
        • The Scots had agreed to the Solemn League and Covenant, promising to help  Parliament's side with it's army.
      • The seconds major battle of the war happened at Marston Moor in Yorkshire, and was a definite win for Parliamentary forces.
    • 1645
      • 2 significant progressions confirmed the growing strength of Parliament's position.
        • Under the Self-Denying Ordinance, all members of Parliament agreed to give up their military commands.
          • They were replaced by generals of provision military ability.
        • Parliamentary forces were reorganised into one army, the New Model Army.
          • Placed under the command of a professional soldier, Sir Thomas Fairfax.
            • Oliver Cromwell was given the command of the cavalry.
        • Both these changes made the Parliamentary army was more organised and under experienced control, hence going to perform better.
      • The New Model Army was crucial in parliament's acrions in the war.
        • In the final key battle of the war, Royalist forces were overwhelmed. (Naseby in June).
          • Throughout the year the New Model Army defeated royalist forces in the Southwest and West.
    • 1646
      • Charles left his stronghold at Oxford and surrendered to the Scots when the Royalist forces began to lose ground.
      • Oxford fell to Parliamentary forces in June, ending the First Civil War.


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