The First Civil War (1642-46)

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  • The First Civil War (1642-46)
    • Choosing Sides
      • Societal and economic positions - aristocracy mainly supp King. Middling to P.
      • Geography - R = North, SW and Wales P= midlands, SE, Hull Plymouth and Pembroke
      • Religion - Puritans to P. R = Catholics/ Anglicans
      • Neutralism and Localism  - and clubmen associations
    • Strengths and Weaknesses
      • Parliament - London - trained bands (20,000 men by 1643), people and wealth, loans from merchants, centre of trade so more access to stuff and printing for propaganda, taxation and ports, control of P - legitimacy, control of S and E which had best agri and money
        • BUT early stages - poor unity w Earl of Essex, divisions over strategy that Pym had to quell, originally no effec means of taxation
      • King - unity, leadership (Rupert), money (donations from nobility and sale of Crown lands), resources
        • BUT unable to secure help from abroad - troops from H made lil impact, Irish confed help easily defeated, main supplies far away in SW, money from trad levies soon ran out not until 1644 when C emulated P in instituting an excise tax
    • Events
      • King failed to secure a swift victory, poor leadership, Scottish Alliance with Parl (SLAC in 1643)-20,000 mean into England in 1644 - crucial in B of MM - securing P control of North
        • ROLE OF PYM - introd excise tax and asses. tax and brought in subs amount of money, Pym satis confl. War & Peace parties but this was much more pron, after P's death in '43, arranged SLAC
      • Batt of Edgehill 1st maj batt - inconc,
        • NMA - godly discipline, meritocracy, paid, fed, equipped, self D Ord meant leadership improved - Eastern Association - won Naseby!!!
    • Why Parliament Won
      • King's actions - didn't march to London in 1643, chose to fight at Naseby, London didn't fall victim to royalist takeover. Charles also doesn't take Treaty of Uxbridge seriously.
    • Radicalism
      • Religious - Puritanism, religious freedom!!!! Developed in NMA.
      • Political - want more than a conservative settlement with the King, especially after his royal docs found -Irish army!!

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