Sociology The Family

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  • Created by: daanish_m
  • Created on: 08-10-15 11:50
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  • The Family
    • Types of Family
      • Non-Family Household    A household containing 1 person or a group of non related people
      • Family Household    A house hold containing a family group- Nuclear or lone parent (for example)
      • Nuclear Family            A traditional 2-generation family with a cohabiting or married couple and their children
      • Extended Family          A 3-generation family who live together or nearby. They could live geographically apart but still provide support
      • Gay or Lesbian Family             a family in which a homosexual couple live together with their children
      • Reconstituat-ed family        A blended family in which one or both partner have children from previous relationship
      • Lone parent    A family where one parent live with their children
      • Beanpole Family             A multigenerati-onal family where each generation has one or two members
    • Key Terms
      • Family           A group of people who are blood related or legally related.
      • Household    A group of people living together and sharing facillities
      • Family Diversity      The Variety of families living in the UK
      • Life-Course Diversity     The way a person's type of Family changes throughout the course of their life
    • Sociological Approaches
      • Feminism
        • Feminists disagree strongly with the family regardless of the kind, as they belive that it continues the gender inequality. In many families you will find that the man is more dominant and that the women carries out most of the domestic roles. Feminists also view socialisation negatively as it contributes to the gender inequality. Lastly femisnists believe that the family can cause domestic violence which of course affects females massvely
      • Marxism
        • Marxists are  also critical of the family but focus on the social class inequality. They believe that the family pass down wealth through generations reproducein the inequality. Through socialisation lower classes learn to accept the unequal position in society. They believe in 2 main classes : the Bourgeosie, the ruling class and the Proletariat, the working class.
      • The New Right
        • The New Right perspectives are influenced by late 1900s governmentsThey believe that -Nuclear families afe the best  -children are best brought up by 2 married parents .     -children from nuclear families are better at school and better emotionally and psychologica-lly than children from single parent families.
      • Functionalism
        • Functionalists believe the family are vital as they perform  4 main functions. They also believe that the nuclear family are the best at completing these functions. They are: REPRODU-CTION, the family provides the next generation, EMOTIONAL SUPPORT, the family keeps everyone happy, ECONOMI-C PROVISION, the family provides financial support, and finally, SOCIALISATI-ON, the family teaches the norms and values of society.
    • Changing Gender Roles
      • Key Terms
        • Cojugal      Roles    The roles adopted by men and women within a marriage or cohabiting relationship
        • Segregated Conjugal       Roles       When each partner has specific roles
        • Joint    Conjugal         Roles      When both partners share the conjugal roles.
        • Symmetrical     Family,    When both partners make similar contributions towards the house
      • Gender Roles Have Changed--                  Young and Wilmott (1973) found that symmetrical families were now typical in the UK                        Young and Wilmott also found that spending decisions are now shared equally.                         Pahl (1989) found that compared to 30 years ago, couples share decisions on spending the income.                       Gatrell (2008) found that fathers in dual-worker couples have a bigger influence than in the past.                                    Reasons are:  the rise in Feminism,     effective contraception, women taking on full-time emploment and the increase in home based activities.
      • Gender Roles Haven't Changed--                           Oakley (1974) found little evidence of symmetry.                             Crompton and Lyonette (2008) argue that attitudes to gender roles have changed but men's participation in housework hasn't.                                  Oakley's findings show that women are responsible for 3 things- domestic jobs, working in employment and emotional support. This is the triple shift.
    • Changing Parent-Child Relationship
      • Authority     -Children have more say in decisions     -children and parents rarely see eachother due to school/work  -children are more rebellious    -Parents are more stressed so leave their kids to it.
      • Child           -Centred -Parents want their children to have a good education    -Smaller family sizes means more time per child           -Children get to to more activities
      • Financially Dependence Changes in education mean that you can't work at 15 anymore so children depend on their parents for money a lot more than in the past
    • Changes in Fertility and Life Expectancy
      • Key Terms
        • Aging Population     When the proportion of the population over retirement age is increasing
        • Demography  The systematic study of human populations including size, age etc.
        • Fertility   The average number of children born to women of child-bearing age (15-44)
        • Infant Mortality      Rate         The number of infant deaths (aged under 1 year) per 1000live births a yeart.
        • Life Expectancy  The average number of years a newborn baby may be expected to live.
        • Welfare        State         A system in which the state takes responsibility for protecting its citizens and meeting their social needs.
      • Changes in    Fertility     The Fertility rate has decreased due to:       later marriage- older women are less likely to have kids,   change in attitudes to family size, large families are not as common and aren't viewed on positively,   Effective birth control- contraception and abortion mean people can choose whether or not to have kids,           Women choosing careers- Women would rather work than have kids.
      • Changes in Life Expectancy -Life  Expectancy has increased due to:     Better Public Health (better doctors and equipment)  Better preventative measures, advances in medicine and surgery, welfare state provisions and better diet and nutrition.
      • Aging population is caused by an increased life expectancy it affects society as:  families will have to look after their parents, it will cost us money as we have to feed and clothe the elderly. Finally it will put strain on the health care system.
    • Marriage, Cohabitation and Divorce
      • Key Terms
        • Cohabitation   Living with a partner outside marriage.
        • Marriage    A legal contract between individuals that creates kinship
        • Divorce   The formal legal termination of a marriage.
      • Changes in Marriage      Marriage is decreasing due to:        changing attitudes to sex out of marriage, increase in the average age of 1st marriage, and introduction of civil partnerships
      • Changes in Cohabitation It is increasing as it is more acceptable, also it is acceptable to have kids outside of marriage finally partners might want to trial their partner before commiting to them
      • Changing Patterns of Divorce      It is increasing as:            -It is easier to get divorced     -women can now choose -it is more socially acceptable   You could argue that it is decreasing as less people are getting married to begin with.
        • Consequen-ces:           -Increase in single parent and reconstituated families  -fall-outs in reconstituated families  -loss of contact with parents for children       -conflict between former partners.


don pedro

Very useful. Thanks!

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