- The extent and impact of Russia's reform
- The Govt.
- Inspired enterprises growth of railways, cities (albeit limited)
- Tsar more highly viewed by peasants as he is seen to give up some autocracy
- Tsar protected social structure with redemption payments
- Industrial development failed to keep pace with workers going to towns for work
- Blamed by nobility, who had to sell land in the 13 stages
- Uprisings continued
- Often set price of land 90% above market value, compensation from Govt too!
- Disputes broke out over land holding & redemption payments. 647 riots
- Those who did well in land allocation could afford to buy more land and partake in enterprise (kulaks)
- Redemptions paid could leave mirs with internal passport
- Land regularly redistributed according to mir's needs - disruption
- Resented payments, thought land was their own
- 9 acres not enough to efficiently farm, household serfs didn't have land
- Land overvalued by nobles, had to sell land to kulaks if redemption payments too much
- Took 49 years to pay redemptions, could be passed on to children
- 21m private landlords' serfs' emancipation over 20 years, not 2 as planned.
- 15% still temporarily obligated by 1881, redemption then made compulsory
- The Govt.
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