The Existence of God Arguments Full Notes

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  • The Concept of Motion
  • "By motion, causes and contingency we see the effects of cause and effect always"
    • Thomas Aquinas' Point
  • Origins
    • First cause arguments  initially put forward by Pluto and Aristotle (4th and 3rd BCE)
      • everything has ac cause so if you go back far enough you should find a first cause
      • Aristotle, deist, put forward this first cause was the creator of the universe
        • Founded on similar reasoning, the Kalam Cosmological Argument was developed.
          • many people over look this argument in favour for believing it was Thomas Aquinas' development of the arugment of causation
          • Thomas Aquinas, a Christian,  expanded on Aristotle's ideas in the 13th AD
            • Recently Christian philosopher William Lane Craig has brought the Kalam Cosmological Argument back into the spotlight.
            • Arguments for causation, motion, contingency, quality of being and design
    • Cosmological
      • Kalam Argument
        • Al-Kindi and Al-Ghazli
          • Middle Ages Muslim Philosophers
        • 1. Everything that begins to exist has a cause
          • 2. The Universe began to exist
            • 3. The Universe has a cause
              • 4. The cause  is God
                • Since God is eternal, he has no beginning
                  • God has no cause.
      • Features
        • Inductive
          • It aims to persuade us
        • Classical
          • In favour of the existence of God
        • A Posteriori
          • Based on looking at evidence in the world around us
        • First C/M/B characteristic
          • Non-Caused
            • Non - Timebound
              • Non-Physical
                • Spiritual
              • Eternal
                • Spiritual
            • Necessary
              • Eternal
        • Arguments
        • Based on 3 of concept arguments
          • Concept of Contingency
          • The Concept of Motion
          • Thomas Aquinas
            • Summa Theologica
              • Book he wrote his 5 Ways in
            • 13th Century Monk
            • Argues for the existence of God
    • 3. The Universe has a cause
      • 4. The cause  is God
        • Since God is eternal, he has no beginning
          • God has no cause.
    • Founded on similar reasoning, the Kalam Cosmological Argument was developed.
      • many people over look this argument in favour for believing it was Thomas Aquinas' development of the arugment of causation
      • Thomas Aquinas, a Christian,  expanded on Aristotle's ideas in the 13th AD
        • Recently Christian philosopher William Lane Craig has brought the Kalam Cosmological Argument back into the spotlight.
        • Arguments for causation, motion, contingency, quality of being and design
    • Features
      • Analytic
        • Based on definitions
      • Deductive
        • If the premise is true, it is valid proof
      • A Priori
        • Based on knowledge, needs no experience
      • Ontological
        • Anselm of Canterbury
          • First Version
            • Wrote in Prologian 2
            • P1. God is something-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought-of
          • Second Version
            • Wrote in Prologian 3
            • P1. God is something-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought-of
            • Assumption 1. God exists Contingently
          • Proof by Contradiction
        • Gaunilo vs Anselm
          • Gaunilo
            • Gossip
              • You may hear of someones existence though you would know that the story is unreliable & the person may not even exist
            • Definition
              • You cannot prove from what is said (de dicto) what exists in reality (in re)
            • Island Analogy
              • Picture an island which no other island can be thought of.
                • Put this island in the place of God in the Ontological argument
                  • It is absurd to say that just because you have an idea of something that it must exist
          • Anselm
            • Response to the Island Analogy
              • By comparing God, a magically great being, to an island, which has no maximum characteristics is to miss the point
    • Anselm of Canterbury
      • First Version
        • Wrote in Prologian 2
        • P1. God is something-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought-of
      • Second Version
        • Wrote in Prologian 3
        • P1. God is something-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought-of
        • Assumption 1. God exists Contingently
      • Proof by Contradiction
    • P2. Things exist either in the mind only or in reality also
      • P3. It is greater to exist in the mind and reality than in the mind only
    • Assumption 1. God exists in the mind only
      • If A1 and P3 are true...
        • It is possible to think of a greater being than God
          • Therefore God is NOT something-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought-of
            • But P1 says God IS something-which-nothing-greater-can-be-thought-of
              • Supported by definition of God
                • Omnipotent
                • Omni benevolent
                • Omniscient
                • Omnipresent
              • These 2 statements form a LOGICAL CONTRADICTION
                • Our A1 is FALSE meaning the alternative by P2 means...
                  • God exists Necessarily
                  • God exists in the Mind and Reality
    • P2. Things exist either Contingently or Necessarily
      • P3. It is greater to exist Necessarily than Contingently
    • Arguments
      • Strenghts
        • Malcolm
          • P1. God's existence is either necessary or impossible
            • P2. God's existence is not impossible (since it's not contradicting)
              • C. God's existence is necessary
                • IF God doesn't exist, he can't come into existence
        • Modal Logic
          • Plantinga
            • P1. There is a possible world with a being of MAXIMAL GREATNESS
              • P2. MAXIMAL GREATNESS includes all worlds
                • omniscience omnipotence omnipresence
                • P3. Our world is a possible world
                  • C. This being exists in our world. Therefore, God exists
      • Critisms
        • No agreed definition of God
          • St Thomas Aquinas
            • An 'A Priori' argument can never prove that God exists.
              • We must search for 'A Posteriori' evidence
        • Existence is not a predicate
          • Immanuel Kant
            • Saying something exists adds nothing to its essence
              • 'God exists' is not an analytic statement
          • Bertrand Russell
            • P1. Men exist
              • P2. Santa is a man
                • C. Santa exists
        • Logical Tricks
          • Gaunilo
            • an island which no greater island can be thought of
              • Logic is absurd
          • Davis
            • Circular logic
              • it must work both ways
                • if God exists >
                  • he exists necessarily
      • Ontological
        • Gaunilo vs Anselm
          • Gaunilo
            • Gossip
              • You may hear of someones existence though you would know that the story is unreliable & the person may not even exist
            • Definition
              • You cannot prove from what is said (de dicto) what exists in reality (in re)
            • Island Analogy
              • Picture an island which no other island can be thought of.
                • Put this island in the place of God in the Ontological argument
                  • It is absurd to say that just because you have an idea of something that it must exist
          • Anselm
            • Response to the Island Analogy
              • By comparing God, a magically great being, to an island, which has no maximum characteristics is to miss the point
    • P2. Santa is a man
      • C. Santa exists
    • If God exists necessarily
      • he exists
      • it must work both ways
        • if God exists >
          • he exists necessarily

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