The Executive

  • Created by: yazminab
  • Created on: 06-05-19 11:06
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  • The Executive
    • The Cabinet
      • The supreme decision making body in central government.
        • Made up of the most senior ministers appointed by the PM.
        • The PM can only govern with the full support of their Cabinet.
        • Collective decision making.
        • Prime Ministerial gov VS Cabinet government.
      • Roles of Cabinet:
        • Implementing policies outlined in the PM's manifesto.
        • Coordinating the actions of the gov.
        • Emergency decisions, e.g. 7/7 attacks.
        • Deciding on major policy (domestic and foreign).
      • Diminishing role of Cabinet:
        • Clement Attlee had 2 meetings a week. Over 100 per year.
        • Blair had only 40 per year, mostly less than an hour long.
        • Inner Cabinet: informal gatherings of leading departmental ministers.
          • Strengthens the position of the P: small but influential body with similar views.
        • Cabinet Committees: decisions often presented to full Cabinet as established gov policy.
        • Kitchen Cabinets: PM's trusted advisors  and the PM's own staff/
        • Bilaterals: meeting between PM and relevant Minister.
    • The Prime Minister
      • Roles of the PM:
        • Controls the HOC: May does this through her agreement with the DUP.
        • Represents UK in international summits: G20 summit in Hamburg 2017.
        • National security: Chaired COBRA meetings following Manchester bombings 2017
        • Important decisions on the basis of Royal Perogative: troops to Libya 2011.
        • Appointments and dismissals to Cabinet.
      • Powers of the PM:
        • Appoints Cabinet: B.Johnson Foreign Sec by May 2016 (Brexiteer).
        • Cabinet reshuffles: Andrea Leadsom demoted following 2017 general election.
        • Command Cabnet meetings: Thatcher "I think we have reached an agreement"
        • Major policy influence: Cameron introduced Brexit. May and grammar schools (unsuccessful)
        • Dissolution Parliament: May in 2017.
      • Elective dictatorship:
        • Coined by Lord Halisham.
        • The state in which Parliament is dominated by the government of the day.
        • Gov bills virtually always pass HOC.
        • FPTP delivers a majority and strong party discipline.
        • Rare for the gov to be defeated by HOC: 90 day detention order or gambling order.
        • No successful Vote of No Confidence in HOC since 1979.
        • Gov tends to get it's way: Blair with Iraq war despite public opposition.
      • Limits to the PM's power:
        • Have to represent all party factions in Cabinet: Johnston in May's Cabinet.
        • Damaging resignation speeches: Geoffrey Howe against Thatcher's euro-sceptic views.
        • Cabinet support: Thatcher forced to resign by senior party leadership.
        • Majority size: May lacks support due to small majority. DUP agreement.
    • Types of gov:
      • Prime Ministerial:
        • PM appoints and sacks Cabinet.
        • Media focuses onPM.
        • PM chairs Cabinet.
        • Powers of Patronage.
        • Kitchen and Inner Cabinets.
        • Special Advisors: Allistair Campbell under Blaiir.
        • PM has control and others have little say.
      • Cabinet Government:
        • Must represent all party factions.
        • Big personalities and senior figures: big influence.
        • Must delegate roles e.g. committee chairs.
        • Only ministers know what is happening in their department: outmanoeuvrePM.
        • Cabinet can force policies.
        • Senior Ministers pushed Thatcher out.
        • PM doesn't always get their way, Cabinet has influence.
    • Types of Gov:
      • Presidential:
        • The Executive is directly elected.
        • Accountable to the public not the Legislature.
        • Can only be brought down through impeachment.
        • Ineffectual Legislature.
        • difficult to carry out the programme for gov without a clear majority.
        • Britain examples:
          • Direct media appeals: Blair over Iraq war. Ignored party views.
          • Blair acted in a presidential manner re national security.
          • Blair special advisors: Allistair Campbell
          • NO PM CAN VETO LEGISLATION
      • Parliamentary:
        • Executive is formed from the majority party in Parliament.
        • Accountable to Parliament.
        • Ministerial powers are derived from Parliamentary authorisation.
        • Effective at carrying out Executive policy.
        • gov gains it's position the fact that is can command the Legislature.

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