The Digestive System

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  • The Inside Story - The Digestive System
    • Assimilation
      • The body makes good use of the PRODUCTS of digestion. They can be used to make NEW CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS, and LIPIDS. Some of the GLUCOSE (a carbohydrate) that's made is used in RESPIRATION
    • The BREAKDOWN of food is catalysed by ENZYMES
      • Enzymes used in the digestive system are produced by specialised cells in GLANDS and in the GUT LINING.
        • Different enzymes catalyse the BREAKDOWN of different food molecules.
    • BILE NEUTRALISES the stomach acid and EMULSIFIES fats.
      • Bile is PRODUCED in the LIVER. It's STORED in the GALL BLADDER before it's released into the SMALL INTESTINE.
        • The HYDROCHLORIC ACID in the stomach makes the pH TOO ACIDIC for enzymes in the small intestine to work properly.
          • Bile is ALKALINE - it NEUTRALISES the acid and makes conditions ALKALINE.
            • The enzymes in the small intestine WORK BEST in these alkaline conditions.
        • It EMULSIFIES fats. This gives a BIGGER SURFACE AREA of fat for the enzyme lipase to work on which makes its digestion FASTER
    • It contains
      • Gall Bladder - Stores BILE before it's released into the SMALL INTESTINE.
      • Liver - Produces BILE
      • Pancreas - Produces all 3 types of enzyme and releases in the SMALL INTESTINE.
      • Gullet (Oesophagus)
      • Small Intestine - Produces all 3 types of enzyme, where digested food is ABSORBED into the bloodstream.
      • Stomach - It PUMMELS the food with its muscular walls, produces PEPSIN, produces HYDROCHLORIC ACID to KILL BACTERIA and to give the RIGHT pH for PROTEASE to work (pH 2)
      • Large Intestine - Where EXCESS WATER is ABSORBED from the food
      • Salivary Glands - Produce AMYLASE ENZYME in the SALIVA.
      • Rectum - Where the FAECES are STORED before they are released through the ANUS
      • Tongue

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